# Radar Systems, Peak Detection and Tracking

**By**

- Michael Kolawole, Professor at the Monash University, Australia, also electronic engineer working in the radar and detection area.

As well as being fully up-to-date, this book provides wider subject coverage than many other radar books. The inclusion of a chapter on Skywave Radar, and full consideration of HF / OTH issues makes this book especially relevant for communications engineers and the defence sector.

View full description### Audience

Defence (surveillance), R&D, communications engineers;advanced students (undergraduate / graduate) studying radar technology and tracking techniques.

### Book information

- Published: January 2003
- Imprint: NEWNES
- ISBN: 978-0-08-051562-5

### Reviews

* Explains key t heory and mathematics from square one, using case studies where relevant * Designed as a reference text for professional engineers and a course text for advanced students * Includes full coverage of HF / OTH radar systems

### Table of Contents

Preface.PART I**Essential Relational Functions:** Fourier Analysis; Fourier Transform; Inverse Fourier Transform; Orthogonal Relations; Delta function; Discrete Fourier Transform; Aliasing; Other useful mathematical properties; Shifting in Time and Frequency; Convolution; Windowing Functions; Rectangular window; Triangular or Bartlett window; Hamming/Hanning/Blackman window; Kaiser window; Summary of window functions; Correlation Functions; Fast Fourier Transform; Norm of a function; Summary; References; Problems. **Understanding Radar Fundamentals:** An Overview of Radar System Architecture; Transmitter; Receiver (with several subtitles); Data Processing; Data Compression and Storage; Effective algorithms for data compression; Huffman Coding Algorithm; Display and Communication System; Radar Application; Summary; References; Problems. **Antenna Physics and Radar Measurements:** Antenna Radiation; Vertical Monopole; Field Regions; Target Measurements; Pulse Compression; Pulse Compression Processing Technique; Repetition of Pulsed Signals; Sidelobes Suppression; Resolution; Measurement Accuracy for Stationary and Moving Targets; Effects of Pulse Compression on Doppler Radars; Summary; References; Problems; Appendix 3A: Ambiguity function of a Chirp Pulse. **The Radar Equations:** Radar Equation for Microwave Radar; Some Comments on radar gain and target cross section; Receiver-Transmitter Arrangement; Peak and Average Power; Aperture; Receiver Bandwidth, Temperature and Noise; Radar Equation modified by Noise and Other losses; Other Losses; System loss; Beam-shape loss; Collapsing loss; Propagation loss; Polarization loss; Processing loss; Multi-path reflection factor; Target Fluctuation Models; Detection Probability; Time Diversity; Frequency Diversity; Combined Time and Frequency Diversity; Target Detection Range in Clutter; Land and Sea Clutter; Land Reflectivity Model; Sea Reflectivity Model; Rain Clutter; Volume resolution cell; Rain Reflectivity Model; Clutter rejection techniques; a summary; Radar Equation for Laser Radar; Performance Calculations; Near field operation; Search field; Search Figure of Merit for Microwave and Laser Radars; Summary; Radar Equation for Secondary Radars; Application of Beacon Radar Systems; Summary; References; Problems; Appendix 4A: Noise in Doppler Processing. **Antenna Arrays:** Planar arrays; Phase shifter; Beam steering; Inter-element spacing; Pattern multiplication; Slot arrays; Power and time budgets; Summary; References; Bibliography; Problems.PART II IONOSPHERE AND HF SKYWAVE RADAR**The Ionosphere and Its Effect on HF Skywave Propagation:** The Atmosphere; The Ionosphere; Composition; Ray Tracing and Propagation Errors; Refraction and Reflection; Refractive index; Models for Critical Frequencies; Models for Electron Density; Refraction Errors by Ray Tracing; Range or Time Delay Error; Doppler Error; Effect of Earth's magnetic field on electron collisions; No Earth's magnetic field present during electron collision; With Earth's magnetic field present during electron collision; Polarisation Error; Observing the Ionosphere; Skip Zone; Interpreting an ionogram; Ray Tracing and Coordinate Registration; Comments; Summary; References; Bibliography; Problems. **Skywave radar:** Skywave geometry; Basic system architecture; Transmitter; Receiver; Communications; Peak detection; Track and Display; Beamforming; Conclusion; Beam control and calibration; Radar Equation, a discussion; Applications of Skywave Radar; Summary; References; Problems.PART III PROBABILITY THEORY, DECISION THEORY AND SIGNAL PEAK DETECTION**Elements of probability theory and statistical concepts:** Basic Concepts of Random Variable; Summary of Applicable Probability Rules; Bayes Theorem; Probability Density Function; Moment, Average, Variance and Cumulant; Stationarity and Ergodicity; An Overview of Probability Distributions; Uniform Distribution; Normal or Gaussian Distribution; Bivariate Normal or Gaussian Distribution; Rayleigh Distribution; Poisson Distribution; Binomial Distribution; Summary; References; Problems. **Decision theory:** Error Probabilities and Decision Rule; Maximum Likelihood Rule; Neyman-Pearson Rule; Minimum Error Probability Rule; Bayes Minimum Risk Rule; Summary; References; Problems. **Signal Peak Detection:** Signal processing; Processes for detection; Peak Detection; CFAR detection; Matched filtering; Summary; References; Problems.PART IV**Parameter Estimation and Filtering:** Basic Parameter Estimator; Choice of an estimator; Maximum Likelihood Estimator; Maximum likelihood estimators of multiple observations; Estimators a posteriori; Linear estimators; An overview of a Dynamic System; Kalman Estimator; Application of Kalman estimator to engineering problems; Summary; References; Problems. **Tracking:** Basic tracking Process; Filters for Tracking; ab Filter; Coordinate System; Smoothing Factor; abg Filter; Dynamic tracking error; Kalman Filter; Kalman filter for non-manoeuvring target tracking; Kalman filter for manoeuvring target tracking; Initiating filter for manoeuvring targets; Summary of tracking filters; Tracking with PDA in a cluttered environment; Gating (more depth); Formulation of the Event probability; Probability of Current Data; Probability of Event Conditioned on Detection; General Initiation Techniques; Application of PDA to tracking problems.Conclusion; Summary; References; Problems; Glossary of Terms; Index.