Quaternary Coral Reef Systems book cover

Quaternary Coral Reef Systems

History, development processes and controlling factors

This book presents both state-of-the art knowledge from Recent coral reefs (1.8 million to a few centuries old) gained since the eighties, and introduces geologists, oceanographers and environmentalists to sedimentological and paleoecological studies of an ecosystem encompassing some of the world's richest biodiversity. Scleractinian reefs first appeared about 300 million years ago. Today coral reef systems provide some of the most sensitive gauges of environmental change, expressing the complex interplay of chemical, physical, geological and biological factors.
The topics covered will include the evolutionary history of reef systems and some of the main reef builders since the Cenozoic, the effects of biological and environmental forces on the zonation of reef systems and the distribution of reef organisms and on reef community dynamics through time, changes in the geometry, anatomy and stratigraphy of reef bodies and systems in relation to changes in sea level and tectonics, the distribution patterns of sedimentary (framework or detrital) facies in relation to those of biological communities, the modes and rates of reef accretion (progradation, aggradation versus backstepping; coral growth versus reef growth), the hydrodynamic forces controlling water circulation through reef structures and their relationship to early diagenetic processes, the major diagenetic processes affecting reef bodies through time (replacement and diddolution, dolomitization, phosphatogenesis), and the record of climate change by both individual coral colonies and reef systems over the Quaternary.


Audience
researchers on marine geology, sedimentology, biology and marine environments

Hardbound, 550 Pages

Published: August 2009

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53247-3

Contents

  • CONTENTS

    PREFACE

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION : QUATERNARY CORAL REEFS IN TIME AND SPACE.

    1.1.The Reef Phenomenon : definitions and history of discovery and research.

    1.2. Types of Coral Reefs.

    1.2.1. Fringing Reefs.

    1.2.2. Barrier Reefs.

    1.2.3. Atolls.

    1.2.4. Bank Reefs.

    1.3.Geographical distribution of corals and coral reefs

    1.4.Modern tropical climate modes.

    1.5.Quaternary time-scales.

    1.6. Trends in the Quaternary climate dynamics.

    1.7.Establishing the Chronology of Quaternary Coral Reefs.

    1.7.1.Oxygen stable isotopes.

    1.7.2.Uranium-series dating.

    1.7.3. Radiocarbon dating.

    1.7.4. Aminostratigraphy.

    1.7.5.Electron Spin Resonance.

    1.7.6. Magnetostratigraphy.

    1.7.7. Strontium Ratios.

    1.7.8. Other dating methods.

    1.8. Methods of obtaining data.

    1.8.1. Surface observations.

    1.8.2. Pleistocene and Recent reef structures.

     

    CHAPTER 2 : PALEOBIOGEOGRAPHY: EVALUATION OF THE INHERITANCE FROM THE TERTIARY.

    2.1. Introduction.

    2.2. Development patterns of Tertiary coral reefs.

    2.2.1. From the end-Cretaceous extinction to the Cenozoic recovery.

    Extinction patterns.

    Recovery patterns

    2.2.2. Coral and reef diversification in time and space 

    Mechanisms of diversification

    History of coral reef evolution

    2.3. Temporal and spatial variations in coral and calcareous algal diversification.

    2.3.1 Reef-building corals.

    The Western Atlantic-Caribbean Province

    The Eastern Pacific

    The Eastern Atlantic

    The Indo-west Pacific Province

    Inter-regional comparison

    2.3.2. Case study: the historical biogeography of the genus Acropora

    2.3.3. Coralline red algae.

    2.3.4. Green alga Halimeda

    2.4. Conclusions.

     

    CHAPTER 3 : STRUCTURE, ZONATION AND DYNAMIC PATTERNS OF CORAL REEF COMMUNITIES.

    3.1. Introduction.

    3.2. Structure and zonation of modern coral reef communities.

    3.2.1. The Western Atlantic-Caribbean Province.

    3.2.2. The Indo-Pacific Province.

    3.3. Structure and zonation of Quaternary coral reef communities.

    3.3.1. The Western Atlantic-Caribbean Province.

    The Pleistocene.

    The latest Pleistocene to Holocene.

    The Recent past.

    3.3.2. The Indo-Pacific Province.

    The Pleistocene.

    The latest Pleistocene to Holocene.

    The Recent past.

    3.4. Dynamic patterns of coral reef communities.

    3.4.1. Reef-community stability.

    3.4.2. Reef-community variability.

    3.4.3. Reef-community stability versus variability : the time-scale question.

    3.5. Conclusions

     

    CHAPTER 4: CONTROLS ON THE DEVELOPMENT, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESERVATION OF REEFS.

    4.1. Introduction.

    4.2. Controls on reef development and distribution.

    4.2.1. Biotic controls: the role of recruitment, species saturation, competition, predation, symbiosis and disease.

    4.2.2. Abiotic controls: the role of physical and chemical disturbances

    Substrate availability and refuges.

    Antecedent topography.

    Tectonics

    Dust input

    Atmospheric CO2 and aragonite saturation

    Sea level.

    4.3. Controls on reef community preservation: the taphonomic approach.

    4. 3.1. The distribution of taphonomic signatures.

    Identification of reef subenvironments

    Identification of short-term depositional events.

    4.3.2. The taphonomic features as criteria for identifying reef sub-environment and depositional events.

    The modern and Holocene record.

    The Pleistocene record.

    4.3.3. Taphonomic controls on modern and fossil reef communities.

    Coral communities

    Molluscan communities.

    Foraminiferal assemblages.

    Echinodermal assemblages.4.4. Conclusions.

     

    CHAPTER 5. PATTERNS OF CARBONATE PRODUCTION AND DEPOSITION ON REEFS.

    5.2. Patterns of reef carbonate production

    5.2.1. Growth and Production rates of reef dwellers.

    Corals.

    Coralline algae.

    Rhodoliths.

    Halimeda.

    Molluscs.

    Benthic foraminifera.

    Calcareous epibionts.

    Bioeroders.

    5.2.2. Carbonate production at the scale of single reef systems.

    5.3. Patterns of reef carbonate deposition

    5.3.1. Nature and distribution of components in surficial sediments.

    Corals.

    Coralline algae

    Green algae Halimeda

    Molluscs.

    Foraminifera.

    Other skeletal components.

    Non-skeletal and compound carbonate grains.

    Unlithified carbonate mud.

    Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediments.

    Free-living nodules.

    Microbialites.

    5.3.2. Classification of sediment types.

    Carbonate rudstone-dominated types.

    Carbonate grainstone/packstone-dominated types.

    Carbonate wackestone/mudstone-dominated sediments

    Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediments.

    5.3.3. Temporal and spatial shifts in skeletal sediment composition.

    5.3.4. Depositional rates of reef carbonate piles.

    Reef-tract, framework-dominated piles.

    Reef-tract, detritus-dominated piles.

    Lagoonal sediment piles.

    Halimeda mounds.

    5.3.5. Control of reef growth styles on rates of deposition.

    5.3.6. Control of latitude on rates of deposition.

    5. 4. Conclusions.

     

    CHAPTER 6 : REEF ANATOMY AND STRATIGRAPHY.

    6.1. Introduction.

    6.2. Morphology and anatomy of Holocene reefs.

    6.2.1. Nature and composition of reef piles.

    Fore-reef piles.

    Reef-edge, framework-dominated piles.

    Reef-edge, detritus-dominated piles.

    Backreef/lagoonal sediment piles.

    6.2.2. Thickness of reef piles.

    6.2.3. Conceptual models of reef deposition.

    6.3. Structure and Pleistocene stratigraphy of barrier reefs and atolls .

    6.3.1. Barrier and Shelf Reefs.

    Case studies from the Caribbean.

    Case studies from the Indian Ocean

    Case studies from the Pacific Ocean.

    6.3.2.Atolls.6.4. Stratigraphy of emerged reef terraces.

    6.4.1. The Huon Peninsula and Barbados models.

    6.4.2. Other reef terraces sequences.

    6.4.3.High-carbonate islands.

    6.4.4. The question of multi-stage terrace development.

    6.5. Stratigraphy of submerged reef terraces and banks.

    6.5.1. Case studies from stable areas.

    6.5.2. Case studies from subsiding areas.

    6.5.3. Case studies from uplifting areas.

    6.6. Reef stratigraphy and numerical modelling.

    6.7.Conclusions.

     

    CHAPTER 7. REEF HYDROGEOLOGY

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. External Hydrology: Water characteristics and reef responses to waves and currents

    7.2.1.Sea surface temperatures

    Temperatures and Global limits to reef growth

    Intratropical temperature variations.

    Historical changes in temperature limits.

    7.2.2. Water Quality and nutrients

    The modern record

    The Holocene-Pleistocene record.

    7.2.3. Salinity

    The modern record.

    The Holocene-Pleistocene record.

    7.2.4. Water Turbidity

    The modern record

    The Holocene-Pleistocene record.

    7.2.5. Hydrodynamics: the effects of tides, currents, waves, tropical storms and tsunamis.

    Tides and regional currents.

    Winds anw Waves.

    Hydrodynamics and Coral Morphology.

    Storms, Cyclones, Hurricanes and Typhoons

    Tsunamis.

    7.3. Groundwater Hydrology

      Characteristics of the reef hydrological system.

        7.3.2.Flow in Holocene reefs.

        7.3.3.Flow in Pleistocene reefs.

        Case Studies from the Caribbean.

        Case studies from the Pacific.

        7.4. Conclusions

         

        CHAPTER 8. REEF DIAGENESIS

        8.1. Introduction

        8.2. Mineralogy of sediment components

        8.3. Cements in Quaternary reef limestones

        8.3.1. Controls on cement morphology

        Contamination

        Growth rates and reactant supply

        Changes in water chemistry

        Rates of Fluid flow

        Microbial control.

        8.3.2. Textures of cements

        Marine cements.

        Subaerial cements and associated deposits

        8.3.3. Geochemistry of cements.

        8.4. Replacement and dissolution

        8.4.1. Early diagenesis of coral skeletons.

        8.4.2. Replacement of aragonite

        8.4.3. Dissolution of carbonate minerals

        8.4.4. The effects of compaction

          Hydrological control of flow rates

            Flow in sea water.

              8.5.2.Flow rates in meteoric waters

              8.6. Rates of reef diagenesis

              8.6.1. Rates of diagenesis in marine environments

              8.6.2. Rates of diagenesis in freshwater environments

              8.7. Diagenetic sequences

              8.7.1. The control of sea level and climate.

              8.7.2. The control of porosity

              8.8. Dolomite and Reefs

              8.8.1. Penecontemporaneous dolomite

              8.8.2. Conceptual models of reef dolomitization.

              Evaporation and mixing-zone dolomites

              Thermal convection and large-scale circulation of sea water

              8.8.3. Cycles of dolomitization

              8.8.4. Dissolution and alteration of dolomites

              8.9. Phosphorites

              8.9.1.Origins

              Avian guano

              Microbial mediation

              8.9.2. Age of deposition

              8.10. Conclusions

               

               

              CHAPTER 9. CORALS AND CORAL REEFS AS RECORDS OF CLIMATIC CHANGE.

              9.1. Introduction.

              9.2. Individual coral colonies as recorders of climate.

              9.2.1. Growth mode of banded coral skeletons and its environmental control.

              9.3.2. Environmental variables and their proxies in corals.

              Sea surface temperature

              Sea surface salinity

              Precipitation

              Solar radiation

              Atmospheric and oceanic circulation

              9.3. Climate reconstruction based on individual coral colonies

              9.3.1. The record of the last decades and centuries.

              The Pacific Ocean

              The Indian Ocean

              The Red Sea.

              The Western Atlantic.

              The Eastern Atlantic.

              9.3.2. The Holocene record.

              9.3.3. The last Glacial Maximum to early deglacial record.

              9.3.4. The Pleistocene record.

              The last interglacial.

              The penultimate deglaciation.

              Older interglacial-glacial periods.

              9.4. Coral reefs as recorders of sea level change

              9.4.1. Reef evidence of sea-level position.

              Reef flats and associated growth frameworks

              Erosional features

              Compositions of coralgal communities

              Other reef dwellers

              Geometry of subtidal to supratidal sedimentary deposits.

              Fabrics and distributional patterns of cements

              Stratigraphy of stacked reef sequences in cores.

              Numerical modelling of reef growth.

              9.4.2. Reconstruction of sea-level changes over time

              The middle to late Holocene.

              The Last deglaciation.

              The last interstadial period.

              The last interglacial period.

              Older glacial-interglacial cycles.

              9.5. Conclusions

               

              CHAPTER 10. CONCLUSIONS : CORAL REEFS FROM THE PAST TO THE FUTURE.

              10.1. The historical perspective

              10.2. The role of controlling factors in reef growth and distribution

              10.2.1. Environmental controls

              10.2.2. Biotic controls

              10.2.3. Disturbances and resilience of reefs

              10.3. The fossil record as a proxy for the future of reefs

              10.4. Global warming and the future of reefs

              10.5. Prospective

               

               


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