# Quark-Gluon Plasma: Theoretical Foundations

## An Annotated Reprint Collection

**By**

- J. Kapusta
- B. Müller
- J. Rafelski

The purpose of this volume is to trace the development of the theoretical understanding of quark-gluon plasma, both in terms of theequation of state and thermal correlation functions and in terms ofits manifestation in high energy nuclear collisions. Who among us hasnot wondered how tall a mountain is on a neutron star, what happenswhen matter is heated and compressed to higher and higher densities,what happens when an object falls into a black hole, or what happenedeons ago in the early universe? The study of quark-gluon plasma is related in one way or another to these and other thought provoking questions. Oftentimes the most eloquent exposition is given in theoriginal papers. To this end a selection is made of what are themost important pioneering papers in this field. The early 1950s wasan era when high energy multiparticle production in cosmic rayinteractions attracted the attention of some of the brightest minds in physics, and so it should be no surprise that the first reprinted papers deal with the introduction of statistical models of particleproduction. The quark model arose in the 1960s, while QCD as suchwas recognized as the theory of the strong interactions in the1970's. The behavior of matter at high temperatures and supranucleardensities became of wide interest in the nuclear and particle physicscommunities starting in the 1970s, which is when the concept ofquark-gluon plasma became established. The history of the field hasbeen traced up to the early 1990s. There are three reasons forstopping at that point in time. First, most of the key theoreticalconcepts and formalisms arose before 1993, although many of themcontinue to be developed today and hopefully well into the future. Second, papers written after 1992 are much more readily availablethan those writen before due to the advent of the World Wide Web andits electronic preprint databases and journals. Finally, in makingthis collection of reprints available as hardcopy one is limited inthe number of pages, and some papers in the present selection shouldhave been deleted in order to make room for post-1993 papers. For thesame reason the subject focus must of necessity be limited, whichmeans that in this reprint collection two wide subject areas are not addressed: the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditionsis not reported, nor is quark matter in neutron stars. The broadcategories into which the material has been placed, reflect thediverse studies of quark-gluon plasma and its manifestation. They are: phase-space models of particle production, perturbative QCDplasma, lattice gauge theory, fluid dynamics and flow, strangeness, heavy flavor (charm), electromagnetic signals, parton cascade andminijets, parton energy loss and jet quenching, Hanbury Brown--Twiss(HBT) interferometry, disoriented chiral condensates, phasetransition dynamics and cosmology, and color superconductivity. Eachchapter is prefaced by an introduction, which contains a list ofsignificant papers which is more complete than the reprinted papers,though by no means exhaustive. It also contains citations to mostrelevant papers published up to the date of completion of this volume(fall 2002). It is hoped that the short reviews will help bring thereader up to date on the latest developments. The selection ofpapers cited in each chapter, and in particular the ones selected forreprinting, is solely the responsibility of the Editors. It is basedon their best judgement and experience in this field dating back tothe mid-1970s. In order to be reprinted a paper must have beenpioneering in the sense of originality and impact on the field.Generally they have been cited over a hundred times by other paperspublished in refereed journals. The final selection was reviewed anddiscussed among the Editors repeatedly. Just because a paper is not included does not mean they do not know of it or do not have a highregard for it. All of the papers cited or reprinted are originalresearch contributions. There are three other types of publicationslisted. The first is a compilation of books. The second is a listof reviews, many of which contain a significant amount of original material. The third is a list of the proceedings of the series ofQuark Matter meetings, the primary series of internationalconferences in this field that is attended by both theorists andexperimentalists.

Hardbound, 836 Pages

Published: November 2003

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-51110-2

## Contents

- Contents

Introduction

1. Phase Space Model of Particle Production

High energy nuclear events, E. Fermi, Prog. Theor. Phys. (1950)

On multiparticle production in a single interaction process, I. Pomeranchuk, Proceedings of USSR Academy of Sciences (1951)

Statistical thermodynamics of strong interactions at high energies, R. Hagedorn, Suppl. Nuovo Cimento (1965)

On the hadronic mass spectrum, R. Hagedorn, Nuovo Cimento (1967)

Strange anti-baryons from quark-gluon plasma, J. Rafelski, Phys. Lett. B (1991)

2. Perturbative QCD Plasma

Superdense matter: neutrons or asymptotically free quarks?, J.C. Collins and M.J. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1975)

Fermions and gauge vector mesons at finite temperature and density. III. The ground-state energy of a relativistic quark gas, B.A. Freedman and L.D. McLerran, Phys. Rev. D (1977)

Theory of hadron plasma, É.V. Shuryak, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1978) [Sov. Phys. JETP (1978)]

Quantum chromodynamics at high temperature, J.I. Kapusta, Nucl. Phys. B (1979)

Infrared problem in the thermodynamics of the Yang-Mills gas, A.D. Linde, Phys. Lett. B (1980)

Covariant calculations at finite temperature: the relativistic plasma, H.A. Weldon, Phys. Rev. D (1982)

Spectrum of elementary Fermi excitations in quark-gluon plasma, V.V. Klimov, Yad. Fiz. (1981) [Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. (1981)]

Soft amplitudes in hot gauge theories: a general analysis, E. Braaten and R.D. Pisarski, Nucl. Phys. B (1990)

3. Lattice Gauge Theory

Lattice models of quark confinement at high temperature, L. Susskind, Phys. Rev. D (1979)

Quark liberation at high temperature: a Monte Carlo study of SU(2) gauge theory, L.D. McLerran and B. Svetitsky, Phys. Rev. D (1981)

Monte Carlo study of SU(2) gauge theory at finite temperature, J. Kuti, J. Polónyi and K. Szlachányi, Phys. Lett. B (1981)

The order of the deconfinement transition in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, T. Çelik, J. Engels and H. Satz, Phys. Lett. B (1983)

On the existence of a phase transition for QCD with three light quarks, F.R. Brown, F.P. Butler, H. Chen, N.H. Christ, Z.-H. Dong, W. Schaffer, L.I. Unger, and A. Vaccarino, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1990)

Remarks on the chiral phase transition in chromodynamics, R.D. Pisarski and F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. D (1984)

4. Fluid Dynamics and Flow

On multiple production of particles during collisions of fast particles, L.D. Landau, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Physics Series (1953);in English: L. D. Landau, Collected Papers of L.D. Landau, editedby D. Ter Haar, Pergamon, Oxford (1965)

Highly relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: The central rapidityRegion, J.D. Bjorken, Phys. Rev. D (1983)

Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, G. Baym, B.L. Friman, J.-P. Blaizot, M. Soyeur and W. Czyz, Nucl. Phys. A (1983)

Single particle distribution in the hydrodynamic and statisticalthermodynamic models of multiparticle production, F. Cooper and G. Frye, Phys. Rev. (1974)

Evidence for a blast wave from compressed nuclear matter, P.J. Siemens and J.O. Rasmussen, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1979)

Transverse momentum analysis of collective motion in relativisticnuclear collisions, P. Danielewicz and G. Odyniec, Phys. Lett. B (1985)

Anisotropy as a signature of transverse collective flow, J.-Y. Ollitrault, Phys. Rev. D (1992)

5. Strangeness

Strangeness production in the quark-gluon plasma, J. Rafelski and B. Müller, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1982) [Erratum (1986)]

Quarkochemistry in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, T.S. Biró and J. Zimányi, Phys. Lett. B (1982)

How much strangeness production is there in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleuscollisions?, J. Kapusta and A. Mekjian, Phys. Rev. D (1986)

Time evolution of strange-particle densities in hot hadronic matter, P. Koch and J. Rafelski, Nucl. Phys. A (1985)

Separation of strangeness from antistrangeness in the phase transitionfrom quark to hadron matter: possible formation of strange quarkmatter in heavy-ion collisions, C. Greiner, P. Koch and H. Stöcker, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1987)

6. Charm

J/&psgr; suppression by quark-gluon plasma formation, T. Matsui and H. Satz, Phys. Lett. B (1986)

Color screening and deconfinement for bound states of heavy quarks, F. Karsch, M.T. Mehr and H. Satz, Z. Phys. C (1988)

7. Electromagnetic Signals

Direct production of photons and dileptons in thermodynamical modelsof multiple hadron production, E.L. Feinberg, Nuovo Cim. A (1976)

Quark-gluon plasma and the production of leptons, photons and psionsin hadron collisions, É.V. Shuryak, Yad. Fiz. (1978) [Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. (1978)]

Muon pair production in very high energy nucleus-nucleus collisionsK. Kajantie and H.I. Miettinen, Z. Phys. C (1982)

Direct lepton production in high-energy collisions of nuclei, G. DomokosPhys. Rev. D (1983)

Dilepton emission and the QCD phase transition in ultrarelativisticnuclear collisions, K. Kajantie, J. Kapusta, L. McLerran and A. Mekjian, Phys. Rev. D (1986)

High-energy photons from quark-gluon plasma versus hot hadronicgas, J. Kapusta, P. Lichard and D. Seibert, Phys. Rev. D (1991) [Erratum (1993)]

8. Quark-Gluon Plasma Formation

Minijet production in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, K. Kajantie, P.V. Landshoff and J. Lindfors, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1987)

The early stage of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, J.-P. Blaizot and A.H. Mueller, Nucl. Phys. B (1987)

Quark and gluon production in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, K.J. Eskola, K. Kajantie and J. Lindfors, Nucl. Phys. B (1989)

HIJING: A Monte Carlo model for multiple jet production in pp, pAand AA collisions, X.-N. Wang and M. Gyulassy, Phys. Rev. D (1991)

Dynamics of parton cascades in highly relativistic nuclear collisions, K. Geiger and B. Müller, Nucl. Phys. B (1992)

Kinetic theory for plasmas with non-abelian interactions, U. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1983)

9. Parton Energy Loss

Jets as a probe of quark-gluon plasmas, D.A. Appel, Phys. Rev. D (1986)

Jets in expanding quark-gluon plasmas, J.-P. Blaizot and L.D. McLerran, Phys. Rev. D (1986)

Gluon shadowing and jet quenching in A+A collisions at √s = 200A GeV, X.-N. Wang and M. Gyulassy, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1992)

10. Density Interferometry

Influence of Bose-Einstein statistics on the antiproton-proton annihilation process, G. Goldhaber, S. Goldhaber, W. Lee and A. Pais, Phys. Rev. (1960)

Like particle correlations as a tool to study the multiple productionMechanism, G.I. Kopylov, Phys. Lett. B (1974)

Pion interferometry of nuclear collisions. I. Theory, M. Gyulassy, S.K. Kauffmann and L.W. Wilson, Phys. Rev. C (1979)

Proton pictures of high-energy nuclear collisions, S.E. Koonin, Phys. Lett. B (1977)

Pion interferometry for exploding sources, S. Pratt, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1984)

Pion interferometry of quark-gluon plasma, S. Pratt, Phys. Rev. D (1986)

11. Disoriented Chiral Condensate

Classical states of the chiral field and nuclear collisions at very highEnergy, A.A. Anselm, Phys. Lett. B (1989)

Soft-pion emission in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, J.-P. Blaizot and A. Krzywicki, Phys. Rev. D (1992)

Static and dynamic critical phenomena at a second order QCD phaseTransition, K. Rajagopal and F. Wilczek, Nucl. Phys. B (1993)

12. Phase Transition Dynamics and Cosmology

Cosmic separation of phases, E. Witten, Phys. Rev. D (1984)

Big bang nucleosynthesis and the quark-hadron transition, H. Kurki-Suonio, R.A. Matzner, K.A. Olive and D.N. Schramm, Astrophys. J. (1990)

Bubble growth and droplet decay in the quark-hadron phase transitionin the early Universe, K. Kajantie and H. Kurki-Suonio, Phys. Rev. D (1986)

Dynamics of the QCD phase transition, L.P. Csernai and J.I. Kapusta, Phys. Rev. Lett. (1992)

13. Color Superconductivity

Superconducting quark matter, B.C. Barrois, Nucl. Phys. B (1977)

Superconductivity in quark matter, D. Bailin and A. Love, Nucl. Phys. B (1982)

Author index