Quantum Coherence Correlation and Decoherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures book cover

Quantum Coherence Correlation and Decoherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures

Semiconductor nanostructures are attracting a great deal of interest as the most promising device with which to implement quantum information processing and quantum computing. This book surveys the present status of nanofabrication techniques, near field spectroscopy and microscopy to assist the fabricated nanostructures. It will be essential reading for academic and industrial researchers in pure and applied physics, optics, semiconductors and microelectronics.

Audience
Academic and industrial researchers in pure and applied physics, optics, semiconductors and micro-electronics.

Hardbound, 496 Pages

Published: February 2003

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-682225-0

Contents


  • Preface

    List of Contributors

    Chapter 1 Coherent Nonlinear Pulse Propagation on a Free-Exciton Resonance in a Semiconductor

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Theoretical Background

    1.3 Samples and Experimental Techniques

    1.4 Results and Discussion

    Excitation-Induced Suppression of Temporal Polariton Beating

    Self-Induced Transmission and Multiple Pulse Breakup

    Phonon-Induced Dephasing of the Excitonic Polarization

    1.5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 2 Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping in Semiconductors

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping

    Experiments

    Theory

    2.3 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 3 High-Field Effects in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 General Theory

    3.3 High-Field Electo-Optics in Quantum Wells and Wires

    Real Space Theoretical Approach to Electon-Hole Wave Packets

    Electro-Magneto-Optical Simulations in Quantum Wells

    Static Franz-Keldysh Effect in Quantum Wires

    Dynamic Franz-Keldysh Effect in Quantum Wires

    3.4 Excitonic Trapping, Ultrafast Population Transfer, and Rabi Flopping

    Theory of High Optical Field Effects in Quantum Wells

    Excitonic Trapping and Ultrafast Population Transfer

    3.5 Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping

    Theory and Computation of Sub-Optical-Carrier Pulse Propagation

    Breakdown of the Area Theorem in a Two-Level Atom

    Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping in Semiconductors

    3.6 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 4 Theory of Resonant Secondary Emission: Rayleigh Scattering versus Luminescence

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Disorder Eigenstates of Excitons

    4.3 Exciton Hamiltonian and Density-Matrix Approach

    4.4 Exciton Kinetics with Acoustic Phonon Scattering

    4.5 Coherent and Incoherent Emission in the Time Domain

    4.6 Speckle Measurement and Interferometry

    4.7 Frequency-Resolved Secondary Emission

    4.8 Signatures of Level Repulsion

    4.9 Enhanced Resonant Backscattering

    4.10 Spin- and Polarization-Dependent Emission

    4.11 Polariton Effects in the Secondary Emission

    Appendix A: Potential Variance

    Appendix B: Weak-Memory and Markov Approximation

    Appendix C: Radiative Rates

    References

    Chapter 5 Higher-Order Coulomb Correlation Effects in Semiconductors

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Nanostructures as Probes of Coulomb Correlations

    Overview of the Semiconductor Equations of Motion with Optical Excitation

    Non-Interacting and Hartree-Fock Approximations

    Beyond the Coherent SBE: Screening and Scattering

    Ultrafast Optical Measurement Techniques

    5.3 Beyond the Screened HF Approximation - Theoretical Approaches to Many-Body Correlations

    Biexcitons and Few-Level Theories

    The Dynamics-Controlled Truncation Scheme

    The Coherent Limit

    Interpreting and Solving the Equations of the DCT

    The Effective Polarization Model

    Phonons

    5.4 Experimental Studies of High-Order Coulomb Correlations

    The Fully Coherent Regime

    Contributions from Incoherent Densities

    Contributions beyond the Four-Particle Level

    Contributions beyond the x (3) Truncation

    5.5 Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 6 Electronic and Nuclear Spin in the Optical Spectra of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    6.1 Introduction to Spin in the Optical Spectrum

    6.2 Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots

    Natural (Interface Fluctuation) QDs

    Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Single QDs

    PL Excitation Spectroscopy of Single QDs

    6.3 Exciton Fine-Structure (Spin and Sublevels)

    Exchange Interaction

    Long-Range Exchange Interaction

    Zeeman Interaction

    Pseudo-Spin Model

    Relaxation

    Polarization Including Finite Relaxation

    Hanle Effect

    6.4 Trions (Singly Charged Excitons)

    Trions in Natural QDs

    Fine Structure in Single Trion Spectroscopy

    Optical Orientation of Negatively Charged Excitons

    6.5 Hyperfine Interaction

    Hyperfine Interaction: Static and Dynamic

    Dynamical Polarization of Nuclei: Overhauser Effect

    Nuclear Dipole-Dipole Interactions

    Optical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    6.6 Spin Relaxation

    Spin Relaxation: Spin-Orbit Interactions

    Spin Relaxation: Hyperfine Interaction

    Hanle Effect for Localized Electrons

    6.7 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Appendix Relaxation of the Nuclear Spin Due to the Fluctuating Electronic Spin

    References

    Chapter 7 Coherent Optical Spectroscopy and Manipulation of Single Quantum Dots

    7.1 Introduction

    Semiconductor QDs

    Excitons and Biexcitons

    Modeling Single QDs

    Quantum Coherence and Quantum Computing Based on Optically Driven QDs

    Single QD Optical Spectroscopy

    7.2 Single Exciton Optical Spectroscopy

    PL and PLE

    Linear Absorption from Single QD Excitons

    CW and Transient Nonlinear Optical Response from Single QD Excitons

    Magneto-Excitons

    7.3 Coherent Optical Control of Single Exciton States

    7.4 Rabi Oscillations of Single Quantum Dots

    Rabi Oscillation Theory for Two-Level Systems

    Strong-Field Differential Transmission: Rabi Oscillations of Single QD Excitons

    Understanding the Decay: Coupling to Delocalized Excitons

    7.5 Biexcitons in Single QDs

    Excitation of Single QD Biexcitons Using CW Fields

    Dephasing of Biexcitons

    Direct Measurement of Biexciton Lifetime

    Biexcitonic Transition Dipole Moment

    Optical Selection Rules

    7.6 Optically Induced Two Exciton-State Entanglement

    7.7 Single Quantum Dot as a Prototype Quantum Computer

    Basic Operations for Quantum Computation

    The Deutsch-Jozsa Problem

    Fast Quantum Computing by Pulse Shaping

    Examples of Pulse Design

    Fast Control Applied to the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

    7.8 Summary

    References

    Chapter 8 Cavity QED of Quantum Dots with Dielectric Microspheres

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Whispering Gallery Modes in a Dielectric Microsphere

    8.3 Composite System of Dielectric Microsphere and MBE-Grown Nanostructure

    8.4 Composite System of Dielectric Microsphere and Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Coupling Nanocrystals to a Dielectric Microsphere: Low-Q Regime

    Coupling Nanocrystals to a Dielectric Microsphere: High-Q Regime

    Dephasing in Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    8.5 Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 9 Theory of Exciton Coherence and Decoherence in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Exciton Rabi Splitting in a Single Quantum Dot

    9.3 Dressed Exciton State

    9.4 Exciton Rabi Oscillation in a Single Quantum Dot

    9.5 Bloch Vector Model

    9.6 Numerical Results and Discussion

    9.7 Wave Packet Interferometry

    9.8 Effect of Two-Photon Coherence

    9.9 Exciton Dephasing in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    9.10 Green Function Formalism of Exciton Dephasing Rate

    9.11 Exciton-Phonon Interactions

    9.12 Excitons in Anisotropic Quantum Disk

    9.13 Temperature-Dependence of the Exciton Dephasing Rate

    9.14 Elementary Processes of Exciton Pure Dephasing

    9.15 Mechanisms of Population Decay of Excitons

    Phonon-Assisted Population Relaxation

    Phonon-Assisted Exciton Migration

    9.16 Recent Progress in Studies on Exciton Decoherence

    9.17 Theory of Dephasing of Nonradiative Coherence

    9.18 Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Index

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