Quantum Coherence Correlation and Decoherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures


  • Toshihide Takagahara, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan

Semiconductor nanostructures are attracting a great deal of interest as the most promising device with which to implement quantum information processing and quantum computing. This book surveys the present status of nanofabrication techniques, near field spectroscopy and microscopy to assist the fabricated nanostructures. It will be essential reading for academic and industrial researchers in pure and applied physics, optics, semiconductors and microelectronics.
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Academic and industrial researchers in pure and applied physics, optics, semiconductors and micro-electronics.


Book information

  • Published: February 2003
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-682225-0

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Chapter 1 Coherent Nonlinear Pulse Propagation on a Free-Exciton Resonance in a Semiconductor

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Theoretical Background

1.3 Samples and Experimental Techniques

1.4 Results and Discussion

Excitation-Induced Suppression of Temporal Polariton Beating

Self-Induced Transmission and Multiple Pulse Breakup

Phonon-Induced Dephasing of the Excitonic Polarization

1.5 Conclusions



Chapter 2 Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping in Semiconductors

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping



2.3 Conclusions



Chapter 3 High-Field Effects in Semiconductor Nanostructures

3.1 Introduction

3.2 General Theory

3.3 High-Field Electo-Optics in Quantum Wells and Wires

Real Space Theoretical Approach to Electon-Hole Wave Packets

Electro-Magneto-Optical Simulations in Quantum Wells

Static Franz-Keldysh Effect in Quantum Wires

Dynamic Franz-Keldysh Effect in Quantum Wires

3.4 Excitonic Trapping, Ultrafast Population Transfer, and Rabi Flopping

Theory of High Optical Field Effects in Quantum Wells

Excitonic Trapping and Ultrafast Population Transfer

3.5 Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping

Theory and Computation of Sub-Optical-Carrier Pulse Propagation

Breakdown of the Area Theorem in a Two-Level Atom

Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping in Semiconductors

3.6 Conclusions



Chapter 4 Theory of Resonant Secondary Emission: Rayleigh Scattering versus Luminescence

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Disorder Eigenstates of Excitons

4.3 Exciton Hamiltonian and Density-Matrix Approach

4.4 Exciton Kinetics with Acoustic Phonon Scattering

4.5 Coherent and Incoherent Emission in the Time Domain

4.6 Speckle Measurement and Interferometry

4.7 Frequency-Resolved Secondary Emission

4.8 Signatures of Level Repulsion

4.9 Enhanced Resonant Backscattering

4.10 Spin- and Polarization-Dependent Emission

4.11 Polariton Effects in the Secondary Emission

Appendix A: Potential Variance

Appendix B: Weak-Memory and Markov Approximation

Appendix C: Radiative Rates


Chapter 5 Higher-Order Coulomb Correlation Effects in Semiconductors

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Nanostructures as Probes of Coulomb Correlations

Overview of the Semiconductor Equations of Motion with Optical Excitation

Non-Interacting and Hartree-Fock Approximations

Beyond the Coherent SBE: Screening and Scattering

Ultrafast Optical Measurement Techniques

5.3 Beyond the Screened HF Approximation - Theoretical Approaches to Many-Body Correlations

Biexcitons and Few-Level Theories

The Dynamics-Controlled Truncation Scheme

The Coherent Limit

Interpreting and Solving the Equations of the DCT

The Effective Polarization Model


5.4 Experimental Studies of High-Order Coulomb Correlations

The Fully Coherent Regime

Contributions from Incoherent Densities

Contributions beyond the Four-Particle Level

Contributions beyond the x (3) Truncation

5.5 Future Directions


Chapter 6 Electronic and Nuclear Spin in the Optical Spectra of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

6.1 Introduction to Spin in the Optical Spectrum

6.2 Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots

Natural (Interface Fluctuation) QDs

Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Single QDs

PL Excitation Spectroscopy of Single QDs

6.3 Exciton Fine-Structure (Spin and Sublevels)

Exchange Interaction

Long-Range Exchange Interaction

Zeeman Interaction

Pseudo-Spin Model


Polarization Including Finite Relaxation

Hanle Effect

6.4 Trions (Singly Charged Excitons)

Trions in Natural QDs

Fine Structure in Single Trion Spectroscopy

Optical Orientation of Negatively Charged Excitons

6.5 Hyperfine Interaction

Hyperfine Interaction: Static and Dynamic

Dynamical Polarization of Nuclei: Overhauser Effect

Nuclear Dipole-Dipole Interactions

Optical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

6.6 Spin Relaxation

Spin Relaxation: Spin-Orbit Interactions

Spin Relaxation: Hyperfine Interaction

Hanle Effect for Localized Electrons

6.7 Conclusions


Appendix Relaxation of the Nuclear Spin Due to the Fluctuating Electronic Spin


Chapter 7 Coherent Optical Spectroscopy and Manipulation of Single Quantum Dots

7.1 Introduction

Semiconductor QDs

Excitons and Biexcitons

Modeling Single QDs

Quantum Coherence and Quantum Computing Based on Optically Driven QDs

Single QD Optical Spectroscopy

7.2 Single Exciton Optical Spectroscopy

PL and PLE

Linear Absorption from Single QD Excitons

CW and Transient Nonlinear Optical Response from Single QD Excitons


7.3 Coherent Optical Control of Single Exciton States

7.4 Rabi Oscillations of Single Quantum Dots

Rabi Oscillation Theory for Two-Level Systems

Strong-Field Differential Transmission: Rabi Oscillations of Single QD Excitons

Understanding the Decay: Coupling to Delocalized Excitons

7.5 Biexcitons in Single QDs

Excitation of Single QD Biexcitons Using CW Fields

Dephasing of Biexcitons

Direct Measurement of Biexciton Lifetime

Biexcitonic Transition Dipole Moment

Optical Selection Rules

7.6 Optically Induced Two Exciton-State Entanglement

7.7 Single Quantum Dot as a Prototype Quantum Computer

Basic Operations for Quantum Computation

The Deutsch-Jozsa Problem

Fast Quantum Computing by Pulse Shaping

Examples of Pulse Design

Fast Control Applied to the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

7.8 Summary


Chapter 8 Cavity QED of Quantum Dots with Dielectric Microspheres

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Whispering Gallery Modes in a Dielectric Microsphere

8.3 Composite System of Dielectric Microsphere and MBE-Grown Nanostructure

8.4 Composite System of Dielectric Microsphere and Semiconductor Nanocrystals

Coupling Nanocrystals to a Dielectric Microsphere: Low-Q Regime

Coupling Nanocrystals to a Dielectric Microsphere: High-Q Regime

Dephasing in Semiconductor Nanocrystals

8.5 Summary



Chapter 9 Theory of Exciton Coherence and Decoherence in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Exciton Rabi Splitting in a Single Quantum Dot

9.3 Dressed Exciton State

9.4 Exciton Rabi Oscillation in a Single Quantum Dot

9.5 Bloch Vector Model

9.6 Numerical Results and Discussion

9.7 Wave Packet Interferometry

9.8 Effect of Two-Photon Coherence

9.9 Exciton Dephasing in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

9.10 Green Function Formalism of Exciton Dephasing Rate

9.11 Exciton-Phonon Interactions

9.12 Excitons in Anisotropic Quantum Disk

9.13 Temperature-Dependence of the Exciton Dephasing Rate

9.14 Elementary Processes of Exciton Pure Dephasing

9.15 Mechanisms of Population Decay of Excitons

Phonon-Assisted Population Relaxation

Phonon-Assisted Exciton Migration

9.16 Recent Progress in Studies on Exciton Decoherence

9.17 Theory of Dephasing of Nonradiative Coherence

9.18 Summary