Quantitative Borehole Acoustic MethodsBy
- X.M. Tang, Baker Hughes Houston Technology Centre, Houston, TX, USA
- A. Cheng, Houston, TX, USA
Acoustic logging is a multidisciplinary technology involving basic theory, instrumentation, and data processing/interpretation methodologies. The advancement of the technology now allows for a broad range of measurements to obtain formation properties such as elastic wave velocity and attenuation, formation permeability, and seismic anisotropy that are important for petroleum reservoir exploration. With these advances, it is easier to detect and characterize formation fractures, estimate formation stress field, and locate/estimate petroleum reserves. The technology has evolved from the monopole acoustic logging into the multipole, including dipole, cross-dipole, and even quadrupole, acoustic logging measurements. The measurement process has developed from the conventional wireline logging into the logging-while-drilling stage.
For such a fast developing technology with applications that are interesting to readers of different backgrounds, it is necessary to have systematic documentation of the discipline, including the theory, methods, and applications, as well as the technology's past, present, and near future development trends. Quantitative Borehole Acoustic Methods provides such documentation, with emphasis on the development over the past decade. Although considerable effort has been made to provide a thorough basis for the theory and methodology development, emphasis is placed on the applications of the developed methods. The applications are illustrated with field data examples. Many of the acoustic waveform analysis/processing methods described in the book are now widely used in the well logging industry.
Handbook of Geophysical Exploration: Seismic Exploration
Hardbound, 274 Pages
Published: January 2004
- Preface.1. Overview of Acoustic Logging - Applications and Recent Advances.1.1 Acoustic well logging concept and evolution of acoustic tools.1.2 Formation elastic-wave property - measurements and applications.1.3 Permeability estimation.1.4 Formation anisotropy measurement and applications.1.5 Determining shear-wave transverse isotropy from stoneley waves.2. Elastic Wave Propagation in Boreholes. 2.1 Borehole source formulation.2.2 Solution for the elastic formation.2.3 Employing the boundary condition at the borehole.2.4 Full waveform synthetic seismograms.2.5 Analysis of wave modes in a borehole.2.6 Modeling multi-layered formations.2.7 Multi-layered formation and cased-hole acoustic logging synthetic seismograms.2.8 Modeling logging-while-drilling multipole wave propagation.2.9 Modeling the effect of attenuation.2.10 Acoustic logging in a transversely isotropic formation.3. Elastic Wave Velocity and Attenuation Estimation from Array Acoustic Waveform Data.3.1 Frequency domain methods.3.2 Time-domain methods.3.3 Resolution enhancement.3.4 Borehole compensation.3.5 Dispersion effects and correction.3.6 Wave attenuation estimation.4. Permeability Estimation - Theory, Methods, and Field Examples.4.1 Theory for acoustic propagation along a permeable porous borehole.4.2 Permeability estimation from borehole stoneley waves.4.3 Joint interpretation of formation permeability from acoustic and NMR log data.5. Acoustic Logging in Anisotropic Formations: Theory, Method, and Applications.5.1 Anisotropy in a borehole environment.5.2 Analysis of cross-dipole acoustic waveform data for shear-wave anisotropy determination.5.3 Application of cross-dipole anisotropy measurement to fracture analyses in open and cased holes.5.4 Application of cross-dipole anisotropy measurement to formation stress analysis.5.5 Estimating formation shear-wave transverse isotropy.6. Summary, Related Topics, and Road Ahead.6.1 Summary of previous chapters.6.2 Related topics and road ahead.References.Names and Places.Index.