Programming with Quartz

2D and PDF Graphics in Mac OS X

  • Philip Schneider, 24 years of professional programming, primarily focused on modeling tools and geometric algorithms. Employers include Digital Equipment Corporation, Apple, Walt Disney Feature Animation, Digital Domain, and Industrial Light + Magic. Formed and lead groups specializing in these areas as well as in physics simulation. Film Credits: Oil & Vinegar, 102 Dalmatians, Disney's Magic Lamp, Mickey's Philharmagic, Reign of Fire, Kangaroo Jack, Chicken Little, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. ACM Siggraph, IEEE. M.S. in Computer Science, University of Washington.
  • By

    • David Gelphman, Apple, Cupertino, California, U.S.A.
    • Bunny Laden, Apple, Cupertino, California, U.S.A.

    Written by members of the development team at Apple, Programming with Quartz is the first book to describe the sophisticated graphics system of Mac OS X. By using the methods described in this book, developers will be able to fully exploit the state-of-the-art graphics capabilities of Mac OS X in their applications, whether for Cocoa or Carbon development. This book also serves as an introduction to 2D graphics concepts, including how images are drawn and how color is rendered. It includes guidance for working with PDF documents, drawing bitmap graphics, using Quartz built-in color management, and drawing text. Programming with Quartz is a rich resource for new and experienced Mac OS X developers, Cocoa and Carbon programmers, UNIX developers who are migrating to Mac OS X, and anyone interested in powerful 2D graphics systems.
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    Cocoa and Carbon programmers who want to understand and fully exploit the power of the graphics system in Mac OS X and those who are looking to add new drawing capabilities, add support for PDF documents, or improve the quality of the graphics in their applications.
    UNIX developers interested in the graphics capabilities of Mac OS X.
    Web developers who want to create dynamic content using Quartz.


Book information

  • Published: December 2005
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-369473-7


"I strongly encourage non-Macintosh programmers to pick up this book and find out for themselves what a truly great development platform we have in the Macintosh. Programmers and software managers at Windows, Linux, and Unix shops should seriously consider the Macintosh as an addition to (or replacement for!) their current stable of platforms. In particular, movie studios, animation houses, and special-effects facilities would do well to consider that with Macintosh, a single platform can provide everything they need..."—from the foreword by Philip J. Schneider, R&D Engineer, Industrial Light + Magic

"Finally, the book I've wanted for years is here! As a graphics programmer, I appreciate the clear explanations of how Quartz has packaged the state of the art for mere mortals. As a Cocoa programmer, I appreciate the clear explanation of which facilities of Quartz Cocoa is already leveraging. This will become a well-thumbed resource for all graphics programmers on Mac OS X, whether or not they're using Cocoa, Carbon, or porting code from another platform."—Dr. Michael B. Johnson, Pixar Animation Studios

"I've been using Quartz since the first release of Mac OS X and this book covers it all! Great advice, good sample code—it's the book to have if you want to learn everything about Quartz."—Stephane Marcouiller, SDE, Microsoft Corporation

"Not only do the authors of Programming with Quartz have a superb understanding of their subject matter, but they have conveyed their knowledge in a clear, concise, and readable manner. Programming with Quartz has saved me quite a bit of time on my first major Quartz project, and its more general lessons on graphics programming techniques and concepts will prove valuable when using any modern graphics API."—Josh Aas, Software Engineer, Mozilla Corporation

"Even after implementing several features using Quartz, I still learned things from this book that I did not know. For example, the chapter on handling PDF images is very thorough in its descriptions and the issues it raises. I wish I had this chapter when I implemented this feature. The book is very well written and covers many complex topics in 2D graphics clearly and at a level appropriate for all programmers. Programming with Quartz continues Apple's tradition of producing excellent documentation for its developers."—Ron Ullmann, Macintosh Business Unit, Microsoft Corporation

Table of Contents

Foreword by Philip Schneider

Our Objective
Source Code
Header Files
Conventions and Assumptions
Quartz Technologies

Chapter 1 Introducing Quartz 2D
A Bit of History
Quartz 2D Overview
What Software Can Use Quartz 2D?
See Also

Chapter 2 Quartz 2D Drawing Basics
Quartz Graphics Contexts
Filling a Rectangle
Stroking a Rectangle
The Order of Fill and Stroke Operations
Transforming the Coordinate System
Constructing Quartz Paths
Painting with Alpha
Making Dashed Lines
Clipping a Drawing
Drawing PDF Content
More About Graphics Contexts
See Also

Chapter 3 Using Quartz 2D in Cocoa
Xcode Overview
Creating a Cocoa Xcode Project in Tiger
Creating a View in Interface Builder
Connecting the Interface to the Code
Obtaining a Graphics Context in Cocoa
Writing the Drawing Code
Examining the Drawing Output
Cocoa Framework Drawing and Quartz
See Also

Chapter 4 Using Quartz 2D in Carbon
Creating a Carbon Xcode Project
Setting Up a Carbon Window
Creating an Event Handler
Examining the Drawing Output
Using QDBeginCGContext
See Also

Chapter 5 The Quartz Coordinate System and Coordinate Transformations
User Space and Device Space
Coordinate Transformations
The Current Transformation Matrix
The Mathematics of Affine Transforms
Saving and Restoring a Coordinate System
Affine Transform Convenience Functions
See Also

Chapter 6 Drawing with Paths
Properties of Paths
  • Path Construction Primitives
  • Cubic Bézier Curves
  • Quadratic Bézier Curves
Closing Subpaths
Path Construction Convenience Functions
  • Additional Path Convenience Functions (Tiger)
Stroking Paths
  • Line Width
  • Line Joins
  • Line Caps
  • Line Dash
Filling Paths
Clipping With Paths
CGPath Objects (Jaguar and later only)
Path Utility Functions
  • Aligning User Space Coordinates on Pixel Boundaries
See Also

Chapter 7 Color, Alpha Transparency, and the Quartz Graphics State
Color and Color Spaces
  • A General Approach to Setting Color
  • Calibrated Color Spaces
  • Device Color Spaces
  • Special Color Spaces
  • Creating Color Spaces by Name
  • Rendering Intents
Alpha Transparency
  • Blend Modes (Tiger)
CGColorRef Objects (Panther and later)
Graphics State Parameters
See Also

Chapter 8 Data Providers and Data Consumers
Data Providers
  • CGDataProviderCreateWithURL
  • CGDataProviderCreateWithData
  • CGDataProviderCreate
  • CGDataProviderCreateDirectAccess
  • CGDataProviderCreateWithCFData (Tiger and later)
Guidelines for Using Data Providers
Data Consumers

Chapter 9 Drawing Images
Creating CGImage Objects
  • Specialized Functions for JPEG and PNG
  • Drawing Images into a Flipped Coordinate System
  • A General Function for Uncompressed Data
  • Generalized Functions for Compressed Image Data (Tiger and later)
  • Importing Image Data With QuickTime
  • Guidelines for Image Creation
Best Practices for Working With Images
Image Utility Functions
  • Getting Image Dimensions
  • Getting the Pixel Format
  • Creating an Image from a Bitmap Context
  • Working With Color Spaces
  • Creating Subimages
Writing Image Data using CGImageDestination (Tiger)
Exporting to JPEG Using a QuickTime Exporter
See Also

Chapter 10 Image Masking
Creating an Image Mask
  • Drawing and Inverting a 1-Bit Image Mask
  • Drawing an 8-Bit Deep Mask
Masking an Image (Tiger)
  • Masking an Image with an Image Mask
  • Masking an Image with an Image
  • Masking Guidelines
Using Color as a Mask (Tiger)
Clipping to a Mask (Tiger)
See Also

Chapter 11 Text
Text Drawing Parameters
  • Font and Font Size
  • Text Matrix and Text Position
  • Text Drawing Modes
  • Font Smoothing (Jaguar)
  • Character Spacing
Drawing Text Using Quartz
  • Drawing with Characters
  • Drawing with Glyphs
Drawing Text Using Cocoa
  • Using NSString
  • Using NSLayoutManager
  • Subclassing to Get Additional Control
Drawing Text Using Carbon
  • Using HIThemeDrawTextBox (Panther)
  • Using Multilingual Text Engine
  • Using Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging
Drawing Text in a Flipped Coordinate System
See Also

Chapter 12 Creating Bits
Bitmap Graphics Context
  • Supported Pixel Formats
  • Creating a Bitmap Graphics Context
  • Getting Information About a Bitmap Context
  • Using the Bitmap Data from a Bitmap Context
CGLayers (Tiger)
  • Creating a CGLayer Object
  • Drawing to a CGLayer
  • Drawing the Contents of a CGLayer
  • Using a CGLayer to Draw a Checkerboard
Caching Drawing Offscreen
  • Drawing Repeatedly Without Caching
  • Drawing Repeatedly With Bitmap Context Caching
  • Drawing Repeatedly With CGLayer Caching
  • Display Profile Issues
Replacing CopyBits
See Also

Chapter 13 Opening and Drawing PDF Documents
PDF Document Properties
Opening a PDF Document
Using PDF as a Graphical Interchange
  • Creating PDF Data From the Pasteboard: Cocoa
  • Creating PDF from the Pasteboard: Carbon
Drawing PDF Pages
  • Drawing With CGContextDrawPDFDocument
  • Drawing PDF Documents in a Flipped Coordinate System
  • Using CGPDFPage Objects (Panther)
  • Drawing with PDF Rotation on Jaguar and Earlier
Handling Protected PDF Documents (Jaguar)
PDF Document Utility Functions
See Also

Chapter 14 Creating and Examining PDF Documents
Creating New PDF Documents
  • Using CGPDFContextCreateWithURL
  • Using the Auxiliary Information Dictionary
Copying PDF Content to the Pasteboard
Adding Content to Existing PDF Documents
Adding Links to PDF Documents (Tiger)
  • Creating a Link to a URL
  • Creating a Link to Another Page in the Document
Creating Encrypted PDF Output (Tiger)
PDF Document Generation Issues
Examining PDF Document Content (Panther, Tiger)
  • Quartz PDF Introspection
  • Scanning the PDF Content Stream (Tiger)
See Also

Chapter 15 Advanced Drawing Features
Drawing with Patterns
  • Creating Patterns
  • Creating and Drawing Colored Patterns
  • Base Space, the Pattern Matrix, and Transforming Patterns
  • Pattern Phase
  • Creating and Drawing Stencil Patterns
  • Drawing Complex Patterns
  • Pattern Issues
Drawing with Shadows (Panther)
  • Shadow Attributes
  • Creating and Drawing With Shadows
  • Shadow Offset and Quartz Base Space
  • Shadows and Grouped Objects
  • Shadows and PDF Documents
Drawing with Transparency Layers (Panther)
  • Using Transparency Layers
  • Alpha Compositing and Transparency Layers
  • Transparency Layers and PDF Documents
  • Transparency Layers Compared to CGLayers
Drawing With Shadings (Jaguar)
  • Shading Concepts and the CGFunction
  • Axial Shadings
  • Radial Shadings
  • Radial Shading Geometries
  • Transforming Shadings
See Also

Chapter 16 Supporting PostScript and EPS Data
Overview of the Conversion Process
Quartz Conversion Functions and Callbacks (Panther)
Creating a PDF Data File From PostScript Data
Using Converted PostScript Data in Your Application
PSConverter Advanced Issues
Printing Source EPS Data
Guidelines for Supporting EPS Data in Your Application
See Also

Chapter 17 Performance and Debugging
Optimizing Performance
  • The Quartz Compositor
  • Quartz Object and Memory Model
  • Improving Performance
  • Measuring Performance
Debugging Your Drawing
  • Examining the Coordinate System
  • Checking the Clipping Area
  • Drawing a Debugging Rectangle
  • Looking for Console Messages
  • Checking for Data Provider Integrity
  • Checking for Immutability Violations
  • Checking for Improperly Initialized Contexts
  • Checking for Out-of-Sync Color Setting
  • Drawing Images to a PDF Context
  • Releasing a CGPDFContext Object
  • Checking Pattern Color Space Usage
  • Using PDF Generation as a Debugging Aid
See Also

Chapter 18 Creating Quartz Tools and Python Scripts
Python Scripting with Quartz (Panther)
  • Getting Started
Creating Bits with Python
Using Quartz in UNIX Tools
  • Security Issues
The PDF Workflow in Printing (Jaguar)
See Also