Produced Water Treatment Field Manual


  • Maurice Stewart, President, Stewart Training Company
  • Ken Arnold, Ken Arnold Consulting Inc.

Produced Water Treatment Field Manual presents different methods used in produced water treatment systems in the oil and gas industry. Produced water is salty water that is produced as a byproduct along with oil or gas during the treatment. Water is brought along with the oil and gas when these are lifted from the surface. The water is then treated before the discharge or re-injection process. In the introduction, the book discusses the basic terms and concepts that describe produced water treatment. It also presents the different methods involved in the treatment. It further discusses the design, operation, maintenance, and sizing of the produced water treatment systems. In the latter part of the book, the ways to remove impurities in water are discussed, including choosing the proper filter, filtering equipment, filtering methods, and filtering types. The main objective of this book is to provide information about proper water management. Readers who are involved in this field will find this book relevant.
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Petroleum Engineer, Production Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Completion Engineer, Operations Engineer, Drilling Manager, Operations Manager, Project Production Engineer


Book information

  • Published: August 2011
  • ISBN: 978-1-85617-984-3


"Published in a handy small format (4.5x7.5 inches), but not so small it inhibits readability, this guide contains the essential information necessary for produced water treatment using the format of an outline, with subjects followed by short definitions which in turn are followed by lists of key points and in some cases, a list of sample figures. Appendices contain definition of terms, descriptions of water sampling, and oil concentration analysis techniques. Many schematics, drawings, and tables are included. The book is derived from the authors' two-volume Surface production operations. Thoughtfully produced and authoritative, this volume will be essential to engineers and process designers in the field."--Reference and Research Book News

Table of Contents

Part 1 Produced Water Treating Systems


    Disposal Standards

         Offshore Operations

         Onshore Operations

    Characteristics of Produced Water

         Dissolved Solids

         Precipitated Solids (Scales)

    Scale Removal

    Controlling Scale Using Chemical Inhibitors

    Sand and Other Suspended Solids

         Dissolved Gases

         Oil-in-Water Emulsions

         Dissolved Oil Concentrations

         Lab Tests

         Dispersed Oil

    System Description


         Gravity Separation




         Number of Cells


    Equipment Description and Sizing

         Skim Tanks and Skim Vessels


         Example 1-1: Determining the Dispersed Oil Content in the Effluent Water from a CPI Plate Separator

         Oil/Water/Sediment Coalescing Separators


         Precipitators/Coalescing Filters

         Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers

         Performance Considerations

         Flotation Units


         General Considerations

         Operating Principles

         Separation Mechanism

         Orientation and Operating Considerations

         Static Hydrocyclones

         Dynamic Hydrocyclones

         Selection Criteria and Application Guidelines

         Sizing and Design

         Disposal Piles

         Skim Piles

         Skim Pile Sizing

    Drain Systems

         Pressure (Closed) Drain System

         Atmospheric (Open) Drain System

         Environmental Considerations

    Information Required for Design

         Design Basis

         Effluent Quality

         Produced Water Flow Rate

         Water Specific Gravity

         Water Viscosity

         Oil Concentration

         Soluble Oil Concentration

         Oil Specific Gravity

         Oil Droplet Size Distribution

         Oil Drop Size Distribution: Open Drains

         Equipment Selection Procedure

    Equipment Specification

         Skim Tank

         SP Pack System

         CPI Separator

         Cross-Flow Devices

         Flotation Unit

         Disposal Pile

         Example 1-2: Design the Produced Water Treating System


Part 2 Water Injection Systems


         General Considerations

         Solids Content

         Oil Content

         Produced Water

         Source Water from Deep Sand Formation

    Solids Removal Theory

         Removal of Suspended Solids from Water

         Gravity Settling


    Diffusional Interception

         Direct Interception

    Filter Types

         Nonfixed-Pore Structure Media

         Fixed-Pore Structure Media

         Surface Media

         Summary of Filter Types

    Removal Ratings

         General Considerations

         Nominal Rating

         Absolute Rating

         Beta (ß) Rating System

    Choosing the Proper Filter

         General Considerations

         Nature of Fluid

         Flow Rate


         Pressure Drop

         Surface Area

         Void Volume

         Degree of Filtration


         Coagulants and Floccuation

    Measuring Water Compatibility

         Saturation Index (LSI)

         Stability Index (RSI)

    Solids Removal Equipment Description

         Source Water Considerations

    Gravity Settling Tanks

         Chemical Scavenging Equipment

    Design Example: Solid Removal Process

         Complete Water Injection System


Appendix A: Definition of Key Water Treating Terms

Appendix B: Water Sampling Techniques

Appendix C: Oil Concentration Analysis Techniques