Produced Water Treatment Field Manual book cover

Produced Water Treatment Field Manual

Produced Water Treatment Field Manual presents different methods used in produced water treatment systems in the oil and gas industry. Produced water is salty water that is produced as a byproduct along with oil or gas during the treatment. Water is brought along with the oil and gas when these are lifted from the surface. The water is then treated before the discharge or re-injection process. In the introduction, the book discusses the basic terms and concepts that describe produced water treatment. It also presents the different methods involved in the treatment. It further discusses the design, operation, maintenance, and sizing of the produced water treatment systems. In the latter part of the book, the ways to remove impurities in water are discussed, including choosing the proper filter, filtering equipment, filtering methods, and filtering types. The main objective of this book is to provide information about proper water management. Readers who are involved in this field will find this book relevant.

Audience

Petroleum Engineer, Production Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Completion Engineer, Operations Engineer, Drilling Manager, Operations Manager, Project Production Engineer

Paperback, 244 Pages

Published: August 2011

Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 978-1-85617-984-3

Reviews

  • "Published in a handy small format (4.5x7.5 inches), but not so small it inhibits readability, this guide contains the essential information necessary for produced water treatment using the format of an outline, with subjects followed by short definitions which in turn are followed by lists of key points and in some cases, a list of sample figures. Appendices contain definition of terms, descriptions of water sampling, and oil concentration analysis techniques. Many schematics, drawings, and tables are included. The book is derived from the authors' two-volume Surface production operations. Thoughtfully produced and authoritative, this volume will be essential to engineers and process designers in the field."--Reference and Research Book News


Contents


  • Part 1 Produced Water Treating Systems

        Introduction

        Disposal Standards

             Offshore Operations

             Onshore Operations

        Characteristics of Produced Water

             Dissolved Solids

             Precipitated Solids (Scales)

        Scale Removal

        Controlling Scale Using Chemical Inhibitors

        Sand and Other Suspended Solids

             Dissolved Gases

             Oil-in-Water Emulsions

             Dissolved Oil Concentrations

             Lab Tests

             Dispersed Oil

        System Description

        Theory

             Gravity Separation

             Coalescence

             Dispersion

             Flotation

             Number of Cells

             Filtration

        Equipment Description and Sizing

             Skim Tanks and Skim Vessels

             Coalescers

             Example 1-1: Determining the Dispersed Oil Content in the Effluent Water from a CPI Plate Separator

             Oil/Water/Sediment Coalescing Separators

             Skimmer/Coalescers

             Precipitators/Coalescing Filters

             Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers

             Performance Considerations

             Flotation Units

             Hydrocyclones

             General Considerations

             Operating Principles

             Separation Mechanism

             Orientation and Operating Considerations

             Static Hydrocyclones

             Dynamic Hydrocyclones

             Selection Criteria and Application Guidelines

             Sizing and Design

             Disposal Piles

             Skim Piles

             Skim Pile Sizing

        Drain Systems

             Pressure (Closed) Drain System

             Atmospheric (Open) Drain System

             Environmental Considerations

        Information Required for Design

             Design Basis

             Effluent Quality

             Produced Water Flow Rate

             Water Specific Gravity

             Water Viscosity

             Oil Concentration

             Soluble Oil Concentration

             Oil Specific Gravity

             Oil Droplet Size Distribution

             Oil Drop Size Distribution: Open Drains

             Equipment Selection Procedure

        Equipment Specification

             Skim Tank

             SP Pack System

             CPI Separator

             Cross-Flow Devices

             Flotation Unit

             Disposal Pile

             Example 1-2: Design the Produced Water Treating System

        Nomenclature

    Part 2 Water Injection Systems

        Introduction

             General Considerations

             Solids Content

             Oil Content

             Produced Water

             Source Water from Deep Sand Formation

        Solids Removal Theory

             Removal of Suspended Solids from Water

             Gravity Settling

             Filtration

        Diffusional Interception

             Direct Interception

        Filter Types

             Nonfixed-Pore Structure Media

             Fixed-Pore Structure Media

             Surface Media

             Summary of Filter Types

        Removal Ratings

             General Considerations

             Nominal Rating

             Absolute Rating

             Beta (ß) Rating System

        Choosing the Proper Filter

             General Considerations

             Nature of Fluid

             Flow Rate

             Temperature

             Pressure Drop

             Surface Area

             Void Volume

             Degree of Filtration

             Prefiltration

             Coagulants and Floccuation

        Measuring Water Compatibility

             Saturation Index (LSI)

             Stability Index (RSI)

        Solids Removal Equipment Description

             Source Water Considerations

        Gravity Settling Tanks

             Chemical Scavenging Equipment

        Design Example: Solid Removal Process

             Complete Water Injection System

        Nomenclature

    Appendix A: Definition of Key Water Treating Terms

    Appendix B: Water Sampling Techniques

    Appendix C: Oil Concentration Analysis Techniques

    Index




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