Process Heat Transfer book cover

Process Heat Transfer

Principles, Applications and Rules of Thumb

The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Heat exchangers are devices built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another. They are widely used in engineering processes and include examples such as intercoolers, preheaters, boilers and condensers in power plants. Heat exchangers are becoming more and more important to manufacturers striving to control energy costs.Process Heat Transfer Rules of Thumb investigates the design and implementation of industrial heat exchangers. It provides the background needed to understand and master the commercial software packages used by professional engineers for design and analysis of heat exchangers. This book focuses on the types of heat exchangers most widely used by industry, namely shell-and-tube exchangers (including condensers, reboilers and vaporizers), air-cooled heat exchangers and double-pipe (hairpin) exchangers. It provides a substantial introduction to the design of heat exchanger networks using pinch technology, the most efficient strategy used to achieve optimal recovery of heat in industrial processes.

Audience
practicing engineers involved with heat transfer equipment in chemical, petrochemical, petroleum processing, and engineering services and consulting firms; students

Hardbound, 770 Pages

Published: March 2007

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-373588-1

Contents

  • CHAPTER 1. HEAT CONDUCTION1. Introduction2. Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction3. The Heat Conduction Equation4. Thermal Resistance55. The Conduction Shape Factor6. Unsteady-State Conduction7. Mechanisms of Heat ConductionReferences Notation ProblemsCHAPTER 2. CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER1. Introduction2. Combined Conduction and Convection3. Extended Surfaces4. Forced Convection in Pipes and Ducts5. Forced Convection in External Flow6. Free ConvectionReferences Notation ProblemsCHAPTER 3. HEAT EXCHANGERS1. Introduction2. Double-Pipe Equipment3. Shell-And-Tube Equipment4. The Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient5. The LMTD Correction Factor6. Analysis of Double-Pipe Exchangers7. Preliminary Design of Shell-And-Tube Exchangers8. Rating A Shell-And-Tube Exchanger9. Heat Exchanger EffectivenessReferencesAppendix 3-A. Derivation of the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference Notation ProblemsCHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERS1. Introduction2. Heat-Transfer Coefficients for Exchangers Without Fins3. Hydraulic Calculations for Exchangers Without Fins4. Series/Parallel Configurations of Hairpins5. Multi-Tube Exchangers6. Over-Surface and Over-Design7. Finned-Pipe Exchangers 7.1. Finned-Pipe Characteristics 7.2. Fin Efficiency 7.3. Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient 7.4. Flow Area and Equivalent Diameter8. Heat-Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors for Finned Annuli9. Wall Temperature for Finned Pipes10. Computer Software 10.1 HEXTRAN 10.2 HTFS/Aspen References Appendix 4-A. Hydraulic Equations in SI Units Appendix 4-B. Incremental Analysis Notation Problems CHAPTER 5. DESIGN OF SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXHANGERS1. Introduction2. Heat-Transfer Coefficients3. Hydraulic Calculations3.1. Tube-Side Pressure Drop3.2. Shell-Side Pressure Drop4. Finned Tubing5. Tube-Count Tables6. Factors Affecting Pressure Drop6.1. Tube-Side Pressure Drop6.2. Shell-Side Pressure Drop7. Design Guidelines7.1. Fluid Placement7.2. Tubing Selection7.3. Tube Layout7.4. Tube Passes7.5. Shell and Head Types7.6. Baffles and Tubesheets7.7. Nozzles7.8. Sealing Strips8. Design Strategy9. Computer SoftwareReferencesAppendix 5-A. Hydraulic Equations in SI UnitsAppendix 5-B. Maximum Tube-Side Fluid VelocitiesAppendix 5-C. Maximum Unsupported Tube LengthsAppendix 5-D. Comparison of Head Types for Shell-and-Tube Exchangers Notation ProblemsCHAPTER 6. THE DELAWARE METHOD1. Introduction2. Ideal Tube Bank Correlations3. Shell-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient4. Shell-Side Pressure Drop4.1. Calculation of 4.2. Calculation of 4.3. Calculation of 4.4. Summary5. The Flow Areas5.1. The Cross-Flow Area5.2. Tube-to-Baffle Leakage Area5.3. Shell-to-Baffle Leakage Area5.4. The Bundle Bypass Flow Area5.5. The Window Flow Area6. Correlations for the Correction Factors6.1. Correction Factor for Baffle Window Flow6.2. Correction Factors for Baffle Leakage6.3. Correction Factors for Bundle Bypass Flow6.4. Correction Factors for Unequal Baffle Spacing6.5. Laminar Flow Correction Factor7. Estimation of Clearances References Notation ProblemsCHAPTER 7. THE STREAM ANALYSIS METHOD1. Introduction2. The Equivalent Hydraulic Network3. The Hydraulic Equations 3.1. Stream Pressure Drops 3.2. Balanced Pressure Drop Requirements 3.3. Mass Conservation 3.4. Correlations for Flow Resistance Coefficients 3.5. Window Pressure Drop 3.6. Window Friction Factor 3.7. Summary4. Shell-Side Pressure Drop5. Shell-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient6. Temperature Profile Distortion7. The Wills-Johnston Method7.1. Streams and Flow Areas7.2. Pressure Drops and Stream Flow Rates7.3. Flow Resistances7.3.1. The Cross Flow Resistance7.3.2. The Bypass Flow Resistance CHAPTER 7. (CONT’D)7.3.3. The Tube-to-Baffle Leakage Flow Resistance7.3.4. The Shell-to-Baffle Leakage Flow Resistance7.3.5. The Window Flow Resistance7.4. Inlet and outlet Baffle Spaces7.5. Total Shell-Side Pressure Drop8. Computer Software8.1. HTRI8.2. HTFS/AspenReferencesNotationProblemsCHAPTER 8. HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORKS1. Introduction2. An Example3. Design Targets4. The Problem Table5. Composite Curves6. The Grand Composite Curve7. Significance of the Pinch8. Threshold Problems and Utility Pinches9. Feasibility Criteria at the Pinch9.1. Number of Process Streams and Branches9.2. The CP Inequality9.3. The CP Difference9.4. The CP Table10. Design Strategy11. Minimum Utility Design for TC311.1. Hot End Design11.2. Cold End Design11.3. Complete Network Design12. Network Simplification 12.1. Heat Load Loops 12.2. Heat Load Paths13. Number of Shells14. Targeting for Number of Shells 14.1. Graphical Method 14.2. Analytical Method15. Area Targets16. The Driving Force Plot17. Super Targeting18. Targeting by Linear Programming19. Computer Software19.1. HEXTRAN19.2. HX-NetReferences NotationProblemsCHAPTER 9. BOILING HEAT TRANSFER1. Introduction2. Pool Boiling3. Correlations for Nucleate Boiling on Horizontal Tubes3.1. Heat-Transfer Coefficients for Pure Component Nucleate Boiling on a Single Tube 3.1.1. The Forster-Zuber Correlation 3.1.2. The Mostinski Correlation 3.1.3. The Cooper Correlation 3.1.4. The Stephan-Abdelsalam Correlation 3.2. Mixture Effects 3.3. Convective Effects in Tube Bundles 3.4. Critical Heat Flux4. Two-Phase Flow4.1. Two-Phase Flow Regimes4.2. Pressure Drop Correlations 4.2.1. The Lockhart-Martinelli Correlation 4.2.2. The Chisholm Correlation 4.2.3. The Friedel Correlation 4.2.4. The Müller-Steinhagen and Heck (MSH) Correlation4.3. Void Fraction and Two-Phase Density 4.3.1. Void Fraction 4.3.2. Homogeneous Flow Model 4.3.3. Lockhart-Martinelli Correlation 4.3.4. The Chisholm Correlation 4.3.5. The CISE Correlation4.4. Other Losses 4.5. Recommendations5. Convective Boiling in Tubes5.1. Boiling Regimes in a Vertical Tube 5.2. The Chen Correlation 5.3. The Gungor-Winterton Correlation 5.4. The Liu-Winterton Correlation 5.5. Other Correlations 5.6. Critical Heat Flux 5.6.1. Vertical Tubes 5.6.2. Horizontal Tubes6. Film Boiling References Notation Problems CHAPTER 10. REBOILERS 1. Introduction 2. Types of Reboilers 2.1. Kettle Reboilers 2.2. Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers 2.3. Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboilers 2.4. Forced Flow Reboilers 2.5. Internal Reboilers 2.6. Recirculating Versus Once-Through Operation 2.7. Reboiler Selection 3. Design of Kettle Reboilers 3.1. Design Strategy 3.2. Mean Temperature Difference 3.3. Fouling Factors 3.4. Number of Nozzles 3.5. Shell Diameter 3.6. Liquid Overflow Reservoir 3.7. Finned Tubing 3.8. Steam as Heating Medium 3.9. Two-Phase Density Calculation 4. Design of Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboilers 4.1. Design Strategy 4.2. Design Guidelines 5. Design of Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Pressure Balance 5.3. Sensible Heating Zone 5.4. Mist Flow Limit 5.5. Flow Instabilities 5.6. Size Limitations 5.7. Design Strategy 5.7.1. Preliminary Design 5.7.2. Circulation Rate 5.7.3. Stepwise Calculations 6. Computer Software 6.1. HEXTRAN 6.2. HTFS/Aspen 6.3. HTRI References Appendix 10-A. Areas of Circular Segments Notation Problems CHAPTER 11. CONDENSERS 1. Introduction 2. Types of Condensers 2.1. Horizontal Shell-Side Condenser CHAPTER 11. (CONT’D) 2.2. Horizontal Tube-Side Condenser 2.3. Vertical Shell-Side Condenser 2.4. Vertical Tube-Side Downflow Condenser 2.5. Reflux Condenser 3. Condensation on a Vertical Surface: Nusselt Theory 3.1. Condensation on a Plane Wall 3.2. Condensation on Vertical Tubes 4. Condensation on Horizontal Tubes 5. Modifications of Nusselt Theory 5.1. Variable Fluid Properties 5.2. Inclined Surfaces 5.3. Turbulence in Condensate Film 5.4. Superheated Vapor 5.5. Condensate Subcooling 5.6. Interfacial Shear 5.6.1. Condensation in Vertical Tubes with Vapor Upflow 5.6.2. Condensation in Vertical Tubes with Vapor Downflow 5.6.3. Condensation Outside Horizontal Tubes 6. Condensation Inside Horizontal Tubes 6.1. Flow Regimes 6.2. Stratified Flow 6.3. Annular Flow 6.4. Other Flow Regimes 7. Condensation on Finned Tubes 8. Pressure Drop 9. Mean Temperature Difference 10. Multicomponent Condensation 10.1. The General Problem 10.2. The Bell-Ghaly Method 11. Computer Software References Appendix 11-A. LMTD Correction Factors for TEMA J- and X-Shells Appendix 11-B. Other Design Considerations Notation ProblemsCHAPTER 12. AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS 1. Introduction 2. Equipment Description 2.1. Overall Configuration 2.2. High-fin Tubing 2.3. Tube Bundle Construction 2.4. Fans and Drivers 2.5. Equipment for Cold Climates 3. Air-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient 4. Air-Side Pressure Drop 5. Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient 6. Fan and Motor Sizing 7. Mean Temperature Difference 8. Design Guidelines 8.1. Tubing 8.2. Air flow Distribution 8.3. Design Air Temperature 8.4. Outlet Air Temperature 8.5. Air Velocity 8.6. Construction Standards 9. Design Strategy 10. Computer Software 10.1. HEXTRAN 10.2. HTFS/Aspen 10.3. HTRI References Appendix 12-A. LMTD Correction Factors for Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers Appendix 12-B. Standard U. S. Motor Sizes Appendix 12-C. Correction of Air Density for Elevation Notation Problems APPENDIX A. THERMOPHSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALSAPPENDIX B. DIMENSIONS OF PIPE AND TUBINGAPPENDIX C. TUBE-COUNT TABLESAPPENDIX D. EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF PIPE FITTINGSAPPENDIX E. PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM STREAMS

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