Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone book cover

Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone

The conservation of historic monuments, sites and structures constitutes an inter-professional discipline co-ordinating a range of aesthetic historic, scientific and technical methods. Conservation is a rapidly developing field, which, by its true nature, is a multidisciplinary activity with experts respecting one another's contributions and combining to form an effective team. Conservation is an artistic activity aided by scientific and historical knowledge.Main topics at this Congress included:
- the most appropriate methodology for the assessment of the degree of weathering of stone
- development of new methods and instruments for the diagnosis of the state of conservation, for the study of alteration mechanisms and for conservation treatments.
- the definition of Technical European Standard Methods for the evaluation of conservation treatments of artistic and historic stone objects and monuments.

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Published: June 2000

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-50517-0

Contents

  • Theme 1 - Weathering of natural stone: causes, mechanism and measurement of stone damage. Restoration of the historical brick masonry (Bajare D., Svinka V.). Comparative study of different methods for gap filling applications and use of adhesives on the biocalcarenite surfaces of the "Tempio della Concordia" in Agrigento (Bennardo C., Meli P., Biscontin G., Berlucchi N., Ginanni Corradini R., Mattolin F.). Grodener sandstone, a historical building material in south Tyrol/Italy - The problem of large variability of stone properties for monument conservation. (Franzen C., Mirwald P.). Evaluation of materials used in the replacement of sculptures in historical monuments (Boutin F,. Bromblet P.). White granites used in lombard architecture (Bugini R., Pavese A., Borroni S., Folli L.). A research into intrinsic parameters material to the durability of highly porous building stones (Calia A., Mecchi A. M., Quarta G.). Preliminary contribution on durability of some macroporous monumental stones used in historical towns of Campania Region, Southern Italy (Langella A., Calcaterra D., Cappelletti P., Colella A., de' Gennaro M., de Gennaro R.). Durability of tuffeau stone in buildings: influence of mineralogical composition and microstructural properties (Dessandier D., Bromblet P., Mertz J-D.). Water-rock interaction and monuments stone decay: the case of Basilica da Estrela, Portugal (Figueiredo A. M. C., Marques J.M., Mauricio A.M., Aires-Barros L.). Analyses of the physical parameters correlated to bending phenomena in marble slabs (Garzonio C. A., Fratini F., Manganelli del Fa C., Giovannini P., Cavallucci F.). Geoegyptology of Al-Muzawaka tombs, Dakhla oases, Egypt (Helmi F. M.). Thermal stress and weathering of Carrara, Pentelic and Ekeberg marble (Lindborg U., Dunakin R. C., Rowcliffe D. J.). Weathering of runestones in a millenian perspective(Lofvendahl R., Gustavson H., Lundberg B.A.). Petrophysical analysis of the sculptures decay at the Cathedral of Burgos, Spain (Fort Gonzales R., Lopez de Azcona M. C., Mingarro Martin F.). Durability of sandstone in Serbian medieval monasteries and modern buildings (Matovic V.B., Milovanovic D. J., Joksimovic S. M.). Sandstone architectural deterioration in Petra, Jordan (Paradise T. R.). Preliminary studies for the consolidation of Guadalupe tuff from the Philippines(Paterno M. C., Charola A. E.). Secondary phosphate phases in altered trachyte from S. Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal) - A possible contribution to the stone degradation (Prudencio M. I., Nasraoui M., Trindade M. J., Sequeira Braga M. A., Figueiredo M. O.). Comparison between traditional and chamber accelerated ageing tests on granitic rocks (Rivas T., Prieto B., Silva B., Birginie J. M.). Physical properties and durability of fresh and impregnated limestone and sandstone from central Sweden used for thin stone flooring and cladding (Sahlin T., Malaga-Starzeg K., Stigh J., Schouenborg B.). Stress from crystallization of salt in pores (Scherer G. W.). Stone materials used in the masonry of Ortigia (Siracusa, Sicily) (Calia A., Mecchi A. M., Scudeler Baccelle L.). Control of marble weathering by thermal expansion and rock fabrics (Siegesmund S., Weiss T., Tschegg E. K.). The relationship between deterioration, fabric, velocity and porosity constraint (Weiss T., Siegesmund S., Rasolofosaon P. N. J.). Saline pollution in trachyte monuments of the Azores Islands (Portugal) (Alves C. A. S., Sequeira Braga M. A., Trancoso A.). Trachyte stones in monuments of the Sao Miguel and Terceira Islands, Azores (Portugal) (Sequeira Braga M. A., Figueiredo M. O., Prudencio M. I, Delgado Rodrigues J., Alves C. A. S., Costa D., Silva T., Trindade M. J., Waerenborgh J. C., Nasraoui M., Gouveia M. A.). Determination of structural anisotropy of Carrara marble with ultrasonic measurements (Sheremeti-Kabashi F., Snethlage R.). The stone of Piraeus at the monuments of the Acropolis of Athens (Theoulakis P., Bardanis M.). Petrophysical properties modifications of Strasbourg's Cathedral sandstone by black crusts (Thomachot C., Jeanette D.). Freeze-thaw resistance of the Yazilikaya tuffs (Topal T., Sozmen B.). An evaluation of geology and weathering in the preservation of marl objects (Ventikou M., Halls C., Lindsay W., Batchelder M., Hubbard C.).Theme 2 - External factors of decay: environmental influence on stone decay. Topoclimatic mapping, a tool for cultural heritage conservation: the case of Roman Theater of Lisbon, Portugal (Aires-Barros L., Dionisio A.). Characterization of surface morphology of carbonate stone and its effect on surface uptake of SO2 (Bede E. A.). Sea water absorption, permeability evolution and deterioration assessment of building stones subjected to marine exposure(Birginie J. M.). Colour changes and reactivity to SO2 of some cladding stones at the "Gran Theater del Liceu" (Barcelona-Spain) (Grossi C. M., Esbert R. M., Alonso F. J., Valdeon L., Ordaz J., Diaz-Pache F.). Early mechanisms of development of sulphated black crusts on carbonate stone (Ausset P., Lefèvre R. A., Del Monte M.). Past air pollution recordings on stone monuments: the heads of Kings of Juda statues from Notre-Dame cathedral (Paris)(Ausset P., Lefevre R. A., Del Monte M., Thiebault S.). Laboratory investigation of weathering behaviour of fresh and impregnated limestone and sandstone from Central Sweden (Malaga-Starzeg K., Sahlin T., Lindqvist O.). The influence of building orientation on climate weathering cycles in Staffordshire, U. K.(Mitchell D. J., Halsey D. P., Macnaughton K., Searle D. E.). Corrosion of limestone in humid air containing sulphur and nitrogen dioxides: a model study(Moroni B., Poli G.). The Doria Pamphilj exhibition Gallery: the study of environmental condition (Artioli D., Giovagnoli A., Nugari M. P., Ivone A., Lonati G.). Analytic methodologies for carbon compound identification: Leaning Tower and Baptistery of Pisa (Sabbioni C., Ghedini N., Gobbi G., Riontino C., Zappia G.). The effect of cool and diesel particulates on the weathering loss of two major building stones in the United Kingdom-A comparative microcatchment study (Searle D. E., Mitchell D. J., Halsey D. P., Dews S. J., Smith J. P.).Evaluation of the environmental influence on sulphate salt formation at monuments in Dresden (Germany) by sulphur isotope measurements (Siedel H., Klemm W.). Granitic building stone decay in an urban enviroment: a case of authigenic kaolinite formation by heterogenous sulphur dioxide attack (Schiavon N.).Theme 3 - Biological damage on stone. Polysaccharides as a key step in stone bio-erosion (Albertano P., Bruno L., Bellezza S., Paradossi G.). The temples of the archaeological area of Paestum (Italy): a case study on biodeterioration (Altieri A., Pietrini A. M., Ricci S., Roccardi A., Piervittori R.). Biological patinas on the limestones of the Loches Romanic Tower (Touraine, France) (Zagari M., Antonelli F, Urzi C.). Chemiolithotrophic bacteria on stone monuments: cultural methods set-up (Bartolini M., Monte M.). New methods to study the detrimental effects of poikilotroph microcolonial micromycetes (PMM) on building materials (Dornieden T., Gorbushina A. A.). Diversity of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from three European mural paintings (Heyrman J., Mergaert J., Swings J.). A study of biologically decayed sandstone with respect to Ca and its distribution (Jones M. S., Wakefield R. D., Forsyth G.). Microbial environmental monitoring of stone cultural heritage (Pitzurra L., Giraldi M., Sbaraglia G., Bistoni F., Bellezza T., Spera G.). The Sao Sebastiao Church of Terceira Island (Azores, Portugal)- Characterisation of the stones and their biological colonisation (Romao P., Prudencio M. I., Trindade M. J., Nasraoui M., Gouveia M. A., Figueiredo M. O., Silva T.). Rapid diagnosis of microbial growth and biocide treatments on stone materials by bioluminescent low-light imaging technique(Ranalli G., Pasini P., Roda A.). The action of "Caloplaca Citrina" on concrete surfaces: a preliminar study (Rosato V. G., Traversa L., Cabello M. N.). Endolithic lichens and conservation: an underestimate question (Pinna D., Salvadori O.). Biological colonisation features on a granite monument from Braga (NW, Portugal) (Leite Magalhaes S., Sequeira Braga M. A.). Efficiency of biocide in "in situ" and "in vitro" treatment. Study case of the Templete de Mudejar, Guadalupe, Spain (Urzi C., De Leo F., Galletta M., Salamone P., Balzarotti R.). Theme 4 - Laboratory methods and techniques. Instrumental chemical analysis of the more common marbles historically used for decorative purposes or to create works of art (Campanella L., Bandini G., Gregori E., Grossi R., Tomassetti M.). Presence of D, L amino acids in oxalate patinas on a stone monument (Casoli A., Negri S., Palla G.). Unite Technologique portable et autonome de diagnostic - Analyse -Investigation, de choix d'intervention avec video asistance a distance et banque de donnees (Catalafini J.). Large scale experimental facilities at ENEA for seismic tests on structural elements of the historical/monumental cultural heritage (De Canio G.). Evaluation of stone pore size distribution by means of NMR (Alesiani M., Capuani S., Curzi F., Mancini L., Maraviglia B.). New results in the application of innovative experimental techniques for investigation of stone decay's processes (Giorgi R., Baglioni P., Alesiani M., Capuani S., Mancini L., Maraviglia B.). Fractal geometry description of the permeability of a natural fissured rock (Miguel A. F., Rui Rosa, Silva A. M.). Micro structural changes in granitic rocks due to consolidation treatments: their effect on moisture transport (Mosquera M. J., Rivas T., Prieto B., Silva B.). The use of sound velocity determination for the non-destructive estimation of physical and microbial weathering of limestones and dolomites (Papida S., Murphy W., May E.). Analytical techniques for characterizing polychromated coatings on quartzite samples from a prehistorical cave (Carmelo Prieto A., Jimenez J., Perez B., Leal L.). Stone drying: an approach of the effective evaporating surface area (Tournier B., Jeanette D., Destrigneville C.). Fractal modelling of particulate deposition in the development of black crusts on stone(Watt J., Massey S., Kendall M.). Characterization and physico-chemical action of condensed water on limestone surfaces (Zendri E., Biscontin G., Kosmidis P., Bakolas A.). Theme 5 - In situ evaluation of damage. The effects of the strong use of cements in restoration: the case of Barga Duomo (Northern Tuscany)(Baccaro M. L. P., Balzi S., Del Chiaro L., Vannucci S.). A simple technique for rapid field assessment of stone decay on buildings (Ball J., Young M. E.). "La Fenice" Theatre - Foyer and Apollinee rooms - Consolidation of fire-damaged stucco and marmorino decorations by means of combined applications of ion-exchange resins and barium hydroxide (Berlucchi N., Ginanni Corradini R., Bonomi R., Bemporad E., Tisato M.). A petrographic atlas as a decision-tool in replacement and substitution of ornamental stone in historical building and monuments (Dingelstadt C., Dreesen R., Thorez J., Lorenzi G., Bossiroy D., Antenucci D., Banier J.). Study on the deterioration and conservation of the stone monument in "Dell'Aquila" Square, Ravenna (Italy) (Macchiarola M., Fiori C., Belacchi S.). Deterioration of rock monuments in Petra/Jordan (Heinrichs K., Fitzner B.). The risk map and the blackening index: a new recording apparatus(Giovagnoli A., Marabelli M., Canegallo P., Ivone A.). A four-year survey of the water contents and movements within a masonry core after a restoration campaign: a case study in Notre-Dame la Grande (Poitiers, France) (Godin J., Pithon M., Verges Belmin V.). Conservation of stone flooring, ancient and modern(Hunt B. J., Grossi C. M.). The restoration of the Ursino Castle (century XIII) in Catania (Barone G., Ioppolo S., Majolino D., Migliardo P., Muscara A., Neri N. F.). Decay mapping of polishable limestone (Martin B., Mason D., Bryan P.). Conservation of the pigmented plaster in Red Temple at Monte D'Accoddi (North Sardinia) (Massidda L., Meloni P., Piras M. G., Sanna U.). Innovative strategies for the preservation of historic cities by ND monitoring techniques and GIS management of data regarding environmental impact on historic materials and structures (Moropoulou A., Koui M., Avdelidis N. P.). Deterioration features in the apse of Orvieto Cathedral (Terni, Italy): a mechanical model (Moroni B., Poli G.). Ultrasonic measurements on weathering alpine marble. A study on field exposed samples and on the medieval marble . Portals of Schloss Tirol/South Tyrol-Italy (Recheis A., Bidner T., Mirwald P.). Deterioration characteristics of columns from the Marmorpalais Potsdam (Germany), by ultrasonic-tomography(Siegesmund S., Pretzschner C., Ruedrich J., Lindner H., Weiss T., Richter I., Richter D., Woyde M.). Damages in monuments produced by the corrosion of metallic junctions. The Acropolis case (Skoulikidis T., Vassiliou P.). Durability of consolidants on a French altered limestone after eighteen years of natural ageing(Vallet J.M., Simon S., Mertz J. D., Martinet G.). Deterioration and conservation of the monuments of Latvia (Lusis R., Vitina I., Igaune S.). Quantification of the long term effects of stone cleaning on decay of building sandstones (Young M. E., Ball J., Laing R. A.). The Coltea Church in Bucharest (Zbirnea I.M., Bonafede L.). Colour and weight evolution of limestones protected by water repellents after three-year ageing period in urban conditions (Boutin F., Leroux L.). Theme 6 - The conservation of stone: treatment methods and products.An integrated approach to design fluoro substituted "smart" polymers for protection of monumental buildings (Aglietto M., Castelvetro V., Ciardelli F., Matteoli U., Botteghi C., Chiantore O., Lazzari M., Alessandrini G., Peruzzi R., Toniolo L., Fassina V.). Effect of fluorinated groups on the photo oxidative stability of polymeric protectives applied on calcareous stone (Chiantore O., Poli T., Aglietto M., Castelvetro V., Peruzzi R., Colombo C., Toniolo L.). Effects of combined application of biocides and protectives on marble(Malagodi M., Nugari M. P., Altieri A., Lonati G.). A comparative study of the efficiency of siloxanes, methacrylates and microwaxes-based treatments applied to the stone materials of the Royal Palace of Madrid, Spain (Fort Gonzales R., Lopez de Azcona M. C., Mingarro Martin F., Alvarez de Buergo Ballester. M., Rodriguez Blanco J.). Study of porosity and specific area evolutions on porous material depending on hydrophobic treatments (Naizot S, Barbary P., Mark S.). Performance testing of transparent protective coating on Globigerina Limestone (Cassar J., Tonna G., Torpiano A., Zammit G.). Evaluations of the effectiveness of innovative perfluoropolyurethane polymers as consolidants for porous materials (Croveri P., Chiavarini M.). Assessment of durability of water repellents by means of exposure tests (Ferreira Pinto A. P., Delgado Rodrigues J.). Deconsolidation par absorption d'eau de grès traités avec le silicate d'éthyle. Mesures non destructives de E, G et v. (Felix C., Ferrari P., Queisser A.). Injectable slurries for the "in situ" conservation of pavement mosaics(Flatt R. J., Girardet F. J.). Silica bound mortars for the repairing of outdoors granite sculptures (Rolland O., Floc'h P., Martinet G., Verges Belmin V.). Ultrasonic testing method for the characterization of Pietra d'Istria structural elements (Almesberger D., Geometrante R., Rizzo A., Suran P.). Ion-exchange resins for historic marble desulfatation and restoration (Guidetti V., Uminski M.). Development of lime mortars with improved resistance to sodium chloride crystallization (Henriques F. M. A., Charola A. E.). Slaked lime mortar: comparison between two samples supposed to be alike (Jornet A., Romer A.). A comparative study of mortars containing barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2). Application on monument's conservation (Lambropoulos V. N., Ghiossi S., Karatasios I.). Measuring the penetration depth of consolidating products: comparison of six methods (Leroux L., Verges Belmin V., Costa D., Delgado Rodrigues J., Tiano P., Snethlage R., Singer B., Massey S., De Witte E.). Preliminary study on the set up of mortars displaying biocidal activity (Ferone C., Pansini M., Mascolo M. C., Vitale A.). Durability of tufaceous stones treated with protection and consolidation products (Dell'Agli G., Ferone C., Mascolo G., Marino O., Vitale A.). Mineral inorganic treatments for the conservation of calcareous artefacts(Lanterna G., Mairani A., Matteini M., Rizzi M., Scuto S., Vincenzi F., Zannini P.). Change in properties of the stone treated with historical or modern conservation agents (Maxovà I.). Criteria and methodology for restoration mortars compatible to the historic materials and structures (Moropoulou A., Bakolas A., Moundoulas P.). The role of consolidants in the conservation of Sydney sandstone buildings (O'Connor J.). Chemistry for conservation of cultural heritage: application of "in situ" polymerisation for the consolidation and protection (Vicini S., Parodi V., Simonetta M., Moggi G., Pedemonte E.). Study of the colourings of the St. Peter Facade (Vatican) (Previde Massara E., Perego G.). A new white cement resistant to sea-water. Development of a white repairing mortar (Puertas F., Blanco-Varela M. T., Palomo A., Vazquez T.). Hydrophobic materials-how effective are they? (Puterman M.). Physical properties of fine grained marble before and after conservation (Rohatsch A., Nimmrichter J., Chalupar I.). Compatible consolidants from particle-modified gels (Escalante M. R., Valenza J., Scherer G. W.). Performance evaluation of preservative coating on stone surface of heritage buildings having hygric state (Sharma R. K., Saxena V. K., Saxena K., Tewari S. K.). Dispersed hydrated lime for the preservation and conservation of stone monuments (Strotmann R., Maryniak-Piaszczynski E.). Ceramic additions in the restoration of stone sculpture and ceramics (Tcheremkhine V. I.). Effectiveness of surface treatments for sedimentary limestone in Greece(Theoulakis P., Tzamalis A.). Assessment of the performance of silane treatments applied to Egyptian limestone sculptures displayed in a museum environment(Thickett D., Lee N. J., Bradley S. M.). Scientific investigation and large scale sandstone treatments: the Washington State Legislative Building (Twilley J., Leavengood D.). The conservation of the sculpture work of the National Monument in Amsterdam (Van Hees R. P. J., Larbi J. A.). Development and assessment of a conversion treatment for calcareous stone (Weiss N. R., Slavid I., Wheeler G.). Evaluation of alkoxysilane coupling agents in the consolidation of limestone(Wheeler G., Mendez-Vivar J., Goins E. S., Fleming S. A., Brinker C. J.). Regularities of conservation of porous material-ancient terracotta of Prichernomorie by acrylic polymer solutions (Levko L. V., Yemelyanov D. N.). Impregnation and strengthening of porous stone by acrylic polymer solutions(Yemelyanov D. N., Volkova N. V., Pavlovskaya M. V.). New proposals for the conservation-consolidation of stones and plasters: analytical characterization and trial applications of Ba aluminates (Messori M., Zannini P., Mairani A., Matteini M.). Integration of laser with conventional techniques in marble restoration (Siano S., Pini R., Salimbeni R., Giamello M., Scala A., Fabiani F., Bianchini P.). In field tests and operative applications of improved laser techniques for stone cleaning (Pini R., Siano S., Salimbeni R.). Results of Laser cleaning on encrusted oolithic limestone of angel sculptures from the Cologne Cathedral (Siedel H., Hubrich K., Kusch H. G., Wiedemann G., Neumeister K., Sobott R.). Theme 7 - Case studies of conservation of Cultural Heritage. Study of stone deterioration in the Palacio do Freixo in Oporto (Begonha A., Teles M.). Polychromy traces and stone decay in the church of S. Maria dei Miracoli in Venice (Fassina V.). Survey on the polychromy and stone materials of funeral monuments dedicated to Jacopo and Ubertino da Carrara in Eremitani Church in Padua (Favaro M., Portieri R., Crivellari F., Naccari A., Spiazzi A., Fassina V.). New findings on past treatment's effects on the Lunette of San Giovanni Evangelista in Venice (Favaro M., Naccari A., Crivellari F., Magris D., Pigo M., Burtet B., Fumo G., Fassina V.). La pierre du portail peint de la Cathedrale de Lousanne: nature, etat de conservation, et consolidation (Furlan V., Felix C., Queisser A.). The Roman aqueduct of Carthage: a minerochemical study on water conduit mortars and deposited crusts (Figueiredo M. O., Veiga J. P., Pereira Da Silva T., Alvarez A., Torrens F., Khosrof S., Ferchiou N.). CastelManiace, Syracuse (Sicily): the deterioration of the marble of the monumental portal and window (Alberti S. A., Antonelli F., Cancelliere S., Lazzarini L., Mannuccia F., Santalucia F.). The South Portal of Sint Martinusbasiliek in Halle, Brabant: technical study and conservation (de Henau P., Leirens I.). Documentary and analytical analogies in the study of patinas of the "Quattro santi coronati" by Nanni di Banco (Giusti A. M., Lalli C., Lanterna G., Matteini M., Rizzi M.). The case of the "Portale of S.Maria a Mare" in Giulianova: results of physico-chemical inquires (Amorosi E., Di Marco F., Rosignoli R., Quaresima R., Scoccia G., Volpe R.). Study of stone deterioration in the cloister of the Mosteiro de Grijò, Portugal (Begonha A., Sequeira Braga M. A.). Study of weathering factors and evaluation of treatments for the stones of "Santa Maria de la Encarnacion" Church, Constantina (Sevilla, Spain) (Villegas Sanchez R., Espinosa-Gaitan J., Alcalde Moreno M.). The Aragonese Portals in eastern Sicily: relationship between form, materials, decay and the environment (Salemi A., Sanfilippo G.). The Columbus monument at Huelva (sw Spain): preliminary survey on stone decay (Galan E., Carretero M.I., Fernandez-Caliani J.C., Requena A., Bernabe J.M.). Conservation problems of the statue of Saint Michael by Raffaello da Montelupo, Castel Sant'Angelo, Rome (Fiori C., Lorusso S., Casalicchio G., Pentrella R., Prestileo F.). Painted sandstone as protection and as an architectural and historical concept (Andersson T., Von Haslingen B.). Detaching methodology for fresco paintings. The case study of a renaissance cycle (Casadio F., Colombo C., Toniolo L.). Weathering of painted marly limestones in the Temple ruin of Merenptah, Qurna/Luxor, (Egypt) (Zehnder K., Arnold A., Kung A.). Ossuccio (CO): a case study to assess the causes of degradation in some terra-cotta statues (Valentini M.). Old Khmer styled sandstone monuments in Thailand. Aspects of weathering and development of conservation concept (Wendler E., Prasartset C.). Ethical issues in the restoration of stone sculpture in the State Tretiakov Gallery. Moscow: evolution of methods and elaboration of new polymer materials (Vassilieva O. A.). The deterioration of Nubian sandstone blocks in the Ptolemaic temples in upper Egypt (Abd El Hady M. M.). Conservation and safeguard of stone rural buildings: an example in a mountain area (Agostini S., Calvi G.). A historiography of recent past interventions at the ancient theatre of Ephesos(Akture Z.). The implication of stone cleaning for planned building maintenance(Laing R. A., Ball J., Scott J., Young M. E.). Campo dei Greci in Venice: the case of conservation of San Giorgio of the Greeks (Ioannidou N.). Masonry of Abruzzo historical buildings (D'Anselmo M.). The rupestral monument of Basarabi-Murfatlar. Conservation of the decoration incised in the chalk walls (Niculescu G., Vlad A. M.). Investigations on technology of joint mortars in brick walls(Domaslowski W.). The knowledge of the plasters typical of the buildings of Ortigia (Siracuse, Italy). Part 1 - Finishing layers (Alessandrini G., Negrotti R., Bocci A. M., Amadori M. L., Ercolani G., Fabbri B., Campisi T.). The knowledge of the plasters typical of the buildings of Ortigia (Siracuse, Italy). Part 2 - The mortar and mortar/finishing layer combination (Alessandrini G., Negrotti R., Bocci A. M., Amadori M. L., Ercolani G., Fabbri B., Campisi T.). Preliminary studies about the ancient mortars of the church of Santa Maria de Irache Monastery (Navarra, Spain) (Alvarez J.I., Montoya C., Navarro I., Martin A.). Study of the lime renderings decay from Plaza de la Corredera, Cordoba, Spain (Gonzales Limon T., Alvarez De Buergo Ballester M.). Problems and solutions in practical restoration of freshwater limestone-tufa (Sidraba I., Krage L., Graudums I.). Technical aspects of stone conservation in Jerusalem (Lobovikov-Katz A.). Sacrificial layers for conservation of calcareous stone in Austria-theory, practice and evaluation (Nimmrichter J., Koller M., Paschinger H., Richard H.). An example of a practical "cleaning" of the architectural facades of Jubilee Rome (Pecoraro I.). Investigation of damage in old stone structures caused by the latest strong earthquake in Northern Greece (Stavrakakis E. J., Karaveziroglou-Weber M.K., Mavrikakis S.P.).

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