Introduction (V.M. Miller, M. Hay). Forward/Historical Overview (S. Marts, S. Keitt). Section 1. Genetic control. Sex chromosomes (M.E. Turner, C. Jenkins et al.). Endocrine control of sexual differentiation: Effects of the maternal-fetal environment and endocrine disrupting chemicals (S.C. Nagel, F.S. vom Saal). Section 2. Hormonal receptors. General mechanisms of steroid receptors and receptor co-regulator action (D.G. Monroe, T.C. Spelsberg). Non-genomic actions of hormones (R.H. Karas). Hormone receptor polymorphisms (A.M. Shearman). Section 3. Integrated systems. Cardiovascular system. Sex, hormones and the endothelium (S.J. Murphy, M.T. Littleton-Kearney et al.). Sex hormones and vascular smooth muscle (J.M. Orshal, R.A. Khalil). Cardiovascular membrane excitability and the influence of sex and sex steroids (D.K. Bowles, M. Hay). Sex-differences in electrophysiology of the heart and cardiac arrhythmias (T.V. Pham, M.R. Rosen). Sex-differences in cardiac muscle and remodeling (B.L. Stauffer, L.A. Leinwand). Reflex control of the circulation (C.T. Minson). Sex differences in hypertension and renal injury (J. F. Reckelhoff, L.A. Fortepiani et al.). Musculoskeletal system and metabolism. Influence of sex hormones on the neuromuscular junction (G.C. Sieck, C.B. Mantilla). Sex and hormonal influences on skeletal muscle, differentiation and contractile mechanisms (M. Brown). Sex-based differences in substrate metabolism (T. Horton, B. Braun). Sex-differences in skeletal development (L.A. Fitzpatrick). Neurological effects. Sex differences in steroid-induced synaptic plasticity (R.D. Romeo, B.S. McEwen). Hormones and the developing brain (M.M. McCarthy). Mechanisms of sex-based neuropathologies (P.M. Wise, D.B. Dubal et al.). Immunological response, hemostasis and wound healing. Sex differences in autoimmunity (T.F. Fagan, D.L. Faustman). Influence of hormones and sex on platelet functions (M. Jayachandran, V.M. Miller). Sex differences in wound healing (G.S. Ashcroft).