# Principles of Electron Optics, Three Volume Set, 1-3

**By**

- Peter Hawkes, CEMES/Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse, France
- E. Kasper, Universitat Tubingen, Germany

### Audience

Students and researchers in optics

### Book information

- Published: April 1996
- Imprint: ACADEMIC PRESS
- ISBN: 978-0-12-333340-7

### Reviews

"In electron Optics there is no precedent... a momentous accomplishment. The list of references is a demonstration of how thorough a job the authors have done...A masterpiece..."

--ULTRAMICROSCOPY

"The first attempt inforty years to cover systematically the whole field of Electron Optics...Up to date account...highly recommended..."--VACUUM

"This is a monumental and timely work--well researched, carefully proof-read, and marked by clarity of thought and expression."--NATURE

"...I[d] like to recommend this work to each who is concerned within the field of particle optics."--OPTIK

"...great clarity, rigorous treatment of every optical element and device since the foundation of the subject...It takes its place as the definitive text and source book in the field..."--PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL MICROSCOPIAL SOCIETY

### Table of Contents

Introduction. **Part I--Classical Mechanics:** Relativistic Kinematics. Different Forms of Trajectory Equations. Variational Principles. Hamiltonian Optics. **Part II--Calculation of Static Fields:** Basic Concepts and Equations. Series Expansions. Boundary-Value Problems. Integral Equations. The Boundary-Element Method. The Finite-Difference Method (FDM). The Finite-Element Method (FEM). Field-Interpolation Techniques. **Part III--The Paraxial Approximation:** Introduction. Systems with an Axis of Rotational Symmetry. Gaussian Optics of Rotationally Symmetric Systems: Asymptotic Image Formation. Gaussian Optics of Rotationally Symmetric Systems: Real Cardinal Elements. Electron Mirrors. Quadrupole Lenses. Cylindrical Lenses. **Part IV--Aberrations:** Introduction. Perturbation Theory: General Formalism. The Relation Between Permitted Types of Aberration and System Symmetry. The Geometrical Aberrations of Round Lenses. Asymptotic Aberration Coefficients. Chromatic Aberrations. Aberration Matrices and the Aberrations of Lens Combinations. The Aberrations of Mirrors and Cathode Lenses. The Aberrations of Quadrupole Lenses and Octopoles. The Aberrations of Cylindrical Lenses. Parasitic Aberrations. **Part V--Deflection Systems:** Deflection Systems and their Aberrations. **Part VI--Computer-Aided Electron Optics:** Numerical Calculation of Trajectories, Paraxial Properties and Aberrations. The Use of Computer Algebra Languages. Notes and References. Index.**Part VII--Instrumental Optics:** Electrostatic Lenses. Magnetic Lenses. Electron Mirrors. Cathode Lenses and Field-Emission Microscopy. Quadrupole Lenses. Deflection Systems. **Part VII--Aberration Correction and Beam Intensity Distribution (Caustics):** Aberration Correction. Caustics and their Applications. **Part IX--Electron Guns:** General Features of Electron Guns. Theory of Electron Emission. Pointed Cathodes without Space Charge. Space Charge Effects. Brightness. Emittance. The Boersch Effect. Complete Electron Guns. **Part X--Systems with a Curved Optic Axis:** General Curvilinear Systems. Magnetic Sector Fields. Unified Theories of Ion Optical Systems. Notes and References. Index.**Part XI--Wave Mechanics:** The Schrodinger Equation. The Relativistic Wave Equation. The Eikonal Approximation. Paraxial Wave Optics. The General Theory of Electron Diffraction and Interference. Elementary Diffraction Patterns. **Part XII--Electron Interference and Electron Holography:** General Introduction. Principles of Interferometry. Principles of Holography. **Part XIII--Theory of Image Formation:** General Introduction. Fundamentals of Transfer Theory. The Theory of Bright-field Imaging. Image Formation in the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. **Part XIV--Electron Interactions in Thin Specimens:** Electron Interactions in Amorphous Specimens. Electron Interactions in Crystalline Specimens. **Part XV--Digital Image Processing:** Introduction. Acquisition, Sampling and Coding. Enhancement. Linear Restoration. Nonlinear Restoration. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction. Image Analysis. Instrument Control and Instrumental Image Manipulation. **Part XVI--Coherence, Brightness and Spectral Functions:** Coherence and the Brightness Functions. Instrumental Aspects of Coherence. Appendix. Notes and References. Index.