Principles of Applied Reservoir Simulation


  • John R. Fanchi, PhD, Petroleum Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA

SHORT BLURB/BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The hottest, most important topic to reservoir engineers is reservoir simulation. Reservoir simulations are literally pictures of what a reservoir of oil or gas looks, or should look, like under the surface of the earth. A multitude of tools is available to the engineer to generate these pictures, and, essentially, the more accurate the picture, the easier the engineer can get the product out of the ground, and, thus, the more profitable the well will be. UNIQUE FEATURE: Completely revised and updated throughout, this new edition of a GPP industry standard has completely new sections on coalbed methane, CO2 sequestration (important for environmental concerns), Co2 Flood, more sophisticated petrophysical models for geoscientists, examples of subsidence, additional geomechanical calculations, and much more. What makes this book so different and valuable to the engineer is the accompanying software, used by reservoir engineers all over the world every day. The new software, IFLO (replacing WINB4D, in previous editions), is a simulator that the engineer can easily install in a Windows operating environment. IFLO generates simulations of how the well can be tapped and feeds this to the engineer in dynamic 3D perspective. This completely new software is much more functional, with better graphics and more scenarios from which the engineer can generate simulations.BENEFIT TO THE READER: This book and software helps the reservoir engineer do his or her job on a daily basis, better, more economically, and more efficiently. Without simulations, the reservoir engineer would not be able to do his or her job at all, and the technology available in this product is far superior to most companies' internal simulation software. It is also much less expensive ($89.95 versus hundreds or even thousands of dollars) than off-the-shelf packages available from independent software companies servicing the oil and gas industry. It is, however, just as, or more accurate than these overpriced competitors, having been created by a high-profile industry expert and having been used by engineers in the real world with successful and profitable results.
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MARKET: Reservoir Engineers, Petroleum Geologists, Geophysists


Book information

  • Published: December 2005
  • ISBN: 978-0-7506-7933-6

Table of Contents

Preface to Third EditionAbout the AuthorIntroduction to Reservoir Management 1.1 Consensus Modeling1.2 Management of Simulation Studies1.3 ?Hands-On? Simulation1.4 Outline of the Text ExercisesPart I - Reservoir Engineering PrimerBasic Reservoir Analysis 2.1 Volumetrics2.2 IFLO Volumetrics2.3 Material Balance2.4 Decline Curve Analysis2.5 IFLO Application: Depletion of a Gas Reservoirvi Principles of Applied Reservoir SimulationExercises3 Multiphase Flow Concepts3.1 Basic Concepts3.2 Capillary Pressure3.3 Relative Permeability3.4 Mobility and Fractional Flow3.5Flow Concepts in Naturally Fractured ReservoirsExercises4 Fluid Displacement4.1 Buckley-Leverett Theory4.2 Welge's Method4.3 Miscible Displacement4.4 Viscous Fingering4.5IFLO Application: Buckley-Leverett DisplacementExercises5 Frontal Stability 5.1 Frontal Advance Neglecting Gravity5.2 Frontal Advance Including Gravity5.3 Linear Stability Analysis5.4 IFLO Application: Frontal Advance in a Dipping Reservoir ExercisesTable of Contents viiPattern Floods 6.1 Recovery Efficiency6.2 Patterns and Spacing6.3 Advances in Drilling Technology6.4 Pattern Recovery6.5 IFLO Application: Five-Spot Waterflood6.6 IFLO Application: Line-Drive Waterflood in a Naturally Fractured Reservoir Exercises7 Recovery of Subsurface Resources 7.1 Production Stages7.2 Enhanced Oil Recovery7.3 Unconventional Fossil Fuels7.4 IFLO Coal Gas Model7.5 IFLO Application: Coal Gas Production from a Fruitland Coal Exercises8 Economics and the Environment 8.1 Society of Petroleum Engineers and World Petroleum Congress Reserves8.2 Basic Economic Concepts8.3 Investment Decision Analysis8.4 Environmental Impactviii Principles of Applied Reservoir Simulation8.5 IFLO Application: CO2 Sequestration in a Mature Oil Field ExercisesPart II - Reservoir Simulation9 Multiphase Fluid Flow Equations 9.1 The Continuity Equation9.2 Conservation Laws9.3 Flow Equations for Black Oil Simulation9.4 Flow Equations for Compositional Simulation9.5 Flow Equations for IFLO9.6 Simulator Selection and Ockham's Razor9.7 IFLO Application: Gas Injection into a Light Oil Reservoir Exercises10 Fundamentals of Reservoir Simulation 10.1 Simulator Solution Procedures10.2 Numerical Dispersion10.3 IFLO Solution Procedure10.4 IFLO Transmissibility10.5 IFLO Well Model10.6 IFLO Application: Throughput in a Naturally Fractured Reservoir Model ExercisesTable of Contents ixOverview of the Modeling Process 11.1 Prerequisites11.2 Major Elements of a Reservoir Simulation Study11.3 Reservoir Management Modeling System11.4 Wellbore Modeling11.5 Wellbore-Reservoir Coupling11.6 Reservoir-Aquifer Model Exercises12 Conceptual Reservoir Scales 12.1 Reservoir Sampling and Scales12.2 Reservoir Geophysics12.3 Correlating Reservoir Properties to Seismic Data12.4 IFLO Petrophysical Model12.5 IFLO Application: Scheduling Time-Lapse Seismic SurveysExercises13 Flow Units 13.1 Well Log Data13.2 Pressure Transient Test Data13.3 Pressure Correction13.4 Integrating Scales: The Flow Unit13.5 IFLO Application: Valley Fill Waterfloodx Principles of Applied Reservoir SimulationExercises14 Rock Properties 14.1 Porosity14.2 Permeability14.3 Porosity-Permeability Models14.4 Permeability-Porosity-Fluid Pressure Relationships14.5 IFLO Geomechanical Model14.6 IFLO Application: Geomechanics and CompactionExercises15 Distributing Rock Properties 15.1 Types of Flow Models15.2 Traditional Mapping15.3 Computer Generated Mapping15.4 Geostatistics and Kriging15.5 Geostatistical Case StudyExercises16 Fluid Properties 16.1 Fluid Types16.2 Fluid Modeling16.3 Fluid Sampling16.4 IFLO Fluid ModelTable of Contents xi16.5 Rock-Fluid InteractionExercises17 Model Initialization 17.1 Grid Definition17.2 Grid Orientation Effect17.3 IFLO Initialization Model17.4 Case Study: IntroductionExercises18 History Matching 18.1 Data Preparation18.2 Illustrative History Matching Strategies18.3 Key History Matching Parameters18.4 Evaluating the History Match18.5 Case Study: Data Analysis and Grid PreparationExercises19 Predictions 19.1 Prediction Process19.2 Sensitivity Analyses19.3 Prediction Capabilities19.4 Validity of Model Predictions19.5 Case Study: History Match and Predictionxii Principles of Applied Reservoir SimulationExercisesPart III: IFLO User's ManualIntroduction to IFLO 20.1 Input Data File20.2 IFLO Execution20.3 IFLO Output Files21 Initialization Data 21.1 Model Dimensions and Geometry21.2 Porosity and Permeability Distributions21.3 Rock Region Information21.4 Modifications to Pore Volumes and Transmissibilities21.5 Reservoir Geophysical Parameters21.6 Fluid PVT Tables21.7 Miscible Solvent Data21.8 Pressure and Saturation Initialization21.9 Run Control Parameters21.10 Analytic Aquifer Models21.11 Coal Gas Model22 Recurrent Data 22.1 Time Step and Output Control22.2 Well InformationTable of Contents xiiiAppendix A: Unit Conversion Factors Appendix B: Example IFLO Input Data Set References Index