Table of ContentsCerebral Blood Flow:, Don ReisL. Sokoloff, Anatomy: Arterial Innervation, Cerebral Veins, and MicrocirculationG.J. del Zoppo, Embryogenesis and AngiogenesisG. Feurerstein and A. Miller, Vasoactive Mediators of Cerebral VesselsF.M. Faraci and D. Heistad, Biology of Cerebral Vascular Muscle P.A. Stewart, Glial-Vascular RelationsW. Pardridge, Transport MechanismS.I. Rapoport, Brain Edema and the Blood-Brain BarrierG.A. Rosenberg, CSF: Formation, Absorption, Markers and Relationship to Blood-Brain BarrierC. Iadecola, Principles and Methods for Measurement of Cerebral Blood FlowJ. Mazziotta, M. Cohen, and A. Toga, The Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism in Human Subjects. P.D. Hurm and R. Traystman, Overview of Cerebrovascular HemodynamicsA.G. Hudetz, Cerebral MicrocirculationJ-M. Chillon and G. Baumbach, Autoregulation of Cerebral Blood FlowD. Traystman, Regulation of CBF by Carbon DioxideE. Golanov and D. Reis, Regulation of CBF by HypoxiaL. Edvinsson and P.J. Goadsby, Extrinsic Innervation: Transmitters, Receptors and Functions--The Sympathetic Nervous SystemP.J. Goadsby and L. Edvinsson, Extrinsic Innervation: Transmitters, Receptors and Functions--The Parasympathetic Nervous SystemP.J. Goadsby and L. Edvinsson, Extrinsic Innervation: Transmitters, Receptors and Functions--the Trigeminovascular SystemP. Magistretti, Coupling of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism U. Dirnagl and J. Dreier, Regulation of CBF by IonsH.R. Winn, Adenosine and Its Receptors: Influence on Cerebral Blood FlowG. Bonvento and E.T. MacKenzie, Serotonin and Its ReceptorsD.G. Linville and E. Hamel, Acetylcholine and Its ReceptorsP.M. Lacombe and E. MacKenzie, Catecholamines and Their Receptors J. McCulloch, Neuropeptide Transmitters and Their ReceptorsD.W. Busija, Eicosanoids and Cerebrovascular ControlT. Dalkara and M.A. Moskowitz, The Role of Nitric Oxide in Cerebral IschemiaPathogenesis and Pathology, Bo SiesjoM. Leist and P. Nicotera, Cell Death: Apoptosis Versus NecrosisW. Pulsinelli, Selective Neuronal Vulnerability and Infarction in Cerebrovascular Disease J.H. Garcia, Evolution of Brain Lesion Induced by Experimental Focal Ischemia A. Tamura and H. Nakayama, Neuronal Damage in Remote Areas After Focal Cerebral Infarct 32. C.D. Lacola and R.P. Kraig, Astrocyte Reaction to Global Ischemic Brain InjuryD. Guilian, Microglia and Inflammatory ResponsesM.D. Ginsberg, Animal Models of Global and Focal Cerebral IschemiaP.H. Chan, Transgenic MiceC. Whalestedt, Gene Knock-Out TechniquesU. Dimagl, Measurements of Microcirculatory Events in the Brain in Vivo R.A. Knight and M. Chopp, Imaging Techniques for Focal Ischemic Damage B.B. Johansson, HypertensionK. Rajamani and Mark Fisher, An Overview of AtherosclerosisH.-P. Haring and G.J. del Zoppo, ThrombosisA. Baethmann and F. Straub, Cellular EdemaA.L. Betz, Vasogenic Brain EdemaK.-I. Katsura., Acidosis as a Complicating Factor in Cerebral Ischemia W.D. Dietrich and R. Busto, Hyperthermia and Brain IschemiaR.A. Floyd, Production of Free RadicalsK.A. Hossmann, Peri-Infarct Depolarization WavesB. SiesjÃ¶ and Tibor KirstiÃ¡n, Cell Calcium Homeostatis and Calcium-Related Ischemic Damage M. Erecinska and I.A. Silver, Loss of Neuronal Calcium Homeostasis in IschemiaN.R. Sims, Mitochondrial Function and Calcium Sequestration During RepurfusionD.W. Choi, The Excitotoxic ConceptM. Tymianski and R.G. Sattler, Is Calcium Involved in Excitotoxic/Ischemic Neuronal Damage? N. Bazan, Lipid Metabolities as Mediators of Cell DeathN. Kawai and H. Tsubokawa, The Role of Inositol Phospholipid MetabolitesV. Bruno, A. Copani, G. Battaglia, G. Casabona, and F. Nicoletti, Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors as a Drug Target in Brain IschemiaE.D. Hall, Lipid PeroxidationP.S. Cole, M.E. Harris, J.M. Carney, N.C. Hall, and D.A. Butterfield, Methods of Evaluating Protein Oxidation Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion InjuryT. Dallkara and M.A. Moskowitz, The Role of Nitric Oxide in Cerebral IschemiaJ. Beckman, Nitric Oxide, Superoxide, and Peroxynitrate in CNS InjuryS.A. Lipton, NO-Related Species: Neuroprotection Versus NeurodestructionW. Kuschinsky, Microvascular Patency in Ischemia and ReperfusionG.J. del Zoppo, Reperfusion Damage: The Role of PMN LeukocytesG. Feuerstein, Inflammatory Mediators in Brain MicrovesselsB.K. SiesjÃ¶ and M-L. Smith, Mechanisms of Acidosis-Related DamageT.W. Wieloch, The Signal Transduction Pathway: An Integrated ViewP. Gass, C. Sommer, and M. Kiessling, Immediate Early Gene Expression After Global Cerebral Ischemia and Ischemia Tolerance Induction T. Nowak, Jr., The Heat Shock/Stress Response After IschemiaMark P. Mattson, Trophic Factors and Brain Cell SurvivalT. Kirnino, Ischemic ToleranceD.L. Small and A.M. Buchan, NMDA and AMPA Receptor Antagonists in Global and Focal IschemiaB. Meldrum, Sodium Channel AntagonistsJ.W. Phillis, Adenosine Agonists and AntagonistsC.P. Taylor, Phenytoin and FosphenytoinE.D. Hall, Antioxidant 21-aminosteroids J.W. Phillis, Free Radical Scavengers and Spin TrapsY. Yamasaki and Kyuya Kogure, Cytokines, Growth Factors and Adhesion Molecules in Inflammatory Reaction After Brain DamageJ-M. Ren and S.P. Finklestein, Trophic Factor Treatment for StrokeM.D. Ginsberg, Hypothermic Neuroprotection in Cerebral IschemiaMedical and Surgical Aspects:Louis Caplan, Bryce Weir and Mike Welch.S.F. Ameriso and S. Sahai, Mechanisms of Ischemia in Situ Vascular Occlusive DiseaseV Castillo and J. Bogousslavsky, Brain EmbolismJ.L. Bernat, Systemic Hypoperfusion Brain InjuryM.S. Pessin, Anterior Circulation--Large Artery Occlusive Disease and EmbolismRobert Joseph Wityk, Posterior Circulation--Large Artery Occlusive Disease and EmbolismM. Hommel, Small Artery Occlusive DiseaseL. Caplan, Vascular DementiaL.R. Rogers, Stroke and NeoplasiaB.T. Troost, Stroke and the EyeV.M. Rivera, Corticosteroids in Acute StrokeV.M. Rivera, Spinal StrokeStephen J. Kittner and Trudy Bush, Pregnancy, Hormonal Contraception, and Postmenopausal Estrogen Replacement TherapyM.I. Chimowitz, Ischemic Stroke in the YoungJ.P. Broderick, Stroke and MigraineP. Mitsias, Head Pain and StrokeA. Valadka and C.S. Robertson, Stroke Secondary to Trauma M.R. Mayberg, Radiation ArteriopathyP. Amerenco, Aortic Arch Artherosclerotic DiseaseM. O'Brien, Rare StrokeC.F. Bladin and J.W. Norris, Stroke and Seizures/Epilepsy G.E. Tietjen, Transient Focal Neurologic EventsR. Atkinson, Pediatric StrokeJ.S. Meyer, T. Shirai, and H. Akiyama, Vascular DementiaB. Johansson, Hypertensive EncephalotherapyG.A. Rosenberg, White Matter DisordersP. Moore, Immune Mediated Neurovascular DiseaseS.R. Levine, Antiphospholipid Antibody SyndromeM-G. Bousser, Cerebral Venous ThrombosisB. Mokri, Spontaneous Dissections of Cervicocephalic ArteriesJ.A. Hunchey and A.J. Furlan, The Heart in StrokeB.M. Couil, Primary Coagulopathies/DIC in Stroke Hematologic Coagulopathy in StrokeL.R. Anderson and W.M. Feinberg, Primary Platelet DisordersE.A. Sekul and R.J. Adams, Stroke and Sickle Cell DiseaseH. Chabriat, CADASILM. Sloan, Toxicity/Substance AbuseA.A. Kurdi and B.A. Yaqub, Stroke and Infection: Tuberculosis, Brucellosis and SyphillisJ.C.M. Brust, AIDS and StrokeM.R. Chicoine and R.G. Dacey, Clinical Aspects of Subarachnoid HemorrhageJ.L. Voelker and H.H. Kaufman, Clinical Aspects of Intracerebral HemorrhageJ.M. Findlay and J.H. Wong, Clinical Aspects of Intraventricular HemorrhageR. Kim and P.R. Cooper, Clinical Aspects of Subdural Hemorrhage (SDH)R.H. Winn, Timing of Surgery and Features of Ruptured Anterior Circulation AneurysmJ.M. Sheehan, G.A. Helm, J.P. Sheehan and N. Kassell, Surgical Management of Acutely Ruptured Posterior Circulation AneurysmL. Dickinson and A.L. Day, Surgical Management of the Patient with Symptomatic Unruptured AneurysmR.A. Solomon, Surgical Management of Patient with Incidental, Asymptomatic AneurysmT. Kopitnik and D.S. Samson, Surgical Management of Patient with a Giant AneurysmC.L. Schnee and E.S. Flamm, Surgical Management of Special AneurysmsR.L. Macdonald, Surgical Management of Aneurysms in the Pediatric Age Group R.L. Macdonald, Unique Features of Aneurysms by LocationR.L. Macdonald, Cerebral VasospasmG.W. Britz and M.R. Mayberg, Pathology of Cerebral Aneurysms and Subarachnoid HemorrhageC.M. Loftus, Management of Intracerebellar Hematomas and InfarctsE.R. Laws, Jr., Surgical Management of Pituitary ApoplexyM.T. Lawton and R.F. Spetler, Surgical Management of Acutely Ruptured Arteriovenous MalformationsC. David and R.C. Heros, Surgical Management of Unruptured AVMsG.M. Malik, Special Considerations in Treating Arteriovenous MalformationsS.A. Toms and D. Chyatte, Cerebral Venous ThrombosisN.A. Martin and R. Patwardhan, Venous AngiomasJ. Kernan, G. Nesbit, and S. Barnwell, Vein of Galen AbnormalitiesD.A. Wecht and I.A. Awad, Carotid Cavernous and Other Dural Arteriovenous FistulasJ.M. Tew and S. Sathi, Caverous Malformations D.L. Barrow, Spinal Vascular MalformationsM.R. Hahn, R.C. Mendel and L.P. Carter, Extracranial Arterial InjuryF.G. Diaz, Surgical Aspects of Vertebral Basilar AtherosclerosisF.B. Meyer and N.C. Fode, Middle Cerebral Artery Embolectomy B. Weir, Extracranial and Intracranial Bypass ProceduresH. Yonas, Surgery for Ischemic InfarctsJ.T. Robertson, Carotid Endarterectomy T. Fukushima, Surgical Aspects of Moyamoya DiseaseInvestigation and Management, Mike Welch.L. Caplan, Clinical Diagnosis and General Laboratory EvaluationJ.R. Carhuapoma and K.M.A. Welch, Cerebral Spinal Fluid in StrokeN.J. Beauchamp and R.N. Bryan, Neuroimaging of StrokeB. Mehta, Cerebral ArteriographyA.V. Alexandrov and J.W. Norris, Cervical UltrasoundR.M. Dafer and N.M. Ramadan, Transcrania Doppler Sonography and StrokeJ.J. Halperin, Cardiac Ultrasound in Stroke InvestigationM.R. DiTullio, R. Sacco, and S. Homma, Ultrasound Examination of the Aortic Arch in Stroke T-S. Olsen, SPECT in Stroke InvestigationR. Frackowiak, PET CBF Investigation of StrokeY. Cao, Functional Magnetics Resonance Imaging in StrokeC.P. Derdeyn and W.J. Powers, Metabolic Studies Using PET in Stroke InvestigationP.B. Barker, Metabolism: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic ImagingC. Webb, Cardiac Electrophysiology in Stroke InvestigationG.G. Brown and S.S. Kinderman, Neuropsychological Aspects of StrokeM. De Marinis, Investigation of Autonomic Dysfunction in Acute StrokeT. Kwiatkowski and R.B. Libman, Emergency StrategiesJ.B. Terry and D.F. Hanley, General Treatment in Intensive Care Setting StrokeJ.B. Terry and D.F. Hanley, Physiologic Monitoring of Stroke in Intensive Care SettingJ.B. Terry and D.F. Hanley, Evaluation of Stroke Patients in Intensive Care SettingS.C. Fagan, Management of Hypertension in StrokeF.W. Whitehouse, Management of Diabetes in StrokeS.M. Oppenheimer, Management of Cardiac/ECG Complications of StrokeM. De Marinis, Management of Dysautonomia/HypotensionR.J. Gerwitz and G.K. Steinberg, Management of Cerebreal Edema/ICP in StrokeR.G. Robinson and S. Paradiso, Depression, Psychosis, Agitation in StrokeB. Smith, Management of Seizures in Acute StrokeJ.A. Sandin III, M.K. Baskaya, and R.J. Dempsey, Management of Lipid MetabolismC.M. Helgason, Mechanisms of Antiplatelet Agents and Their Prevention of StrokeD.G. Sherman and D. Lalonde, Anticoagulants in StrokeT.G. Brott, J.P. Broderick, and R. Kothari, Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic StrokeD. Chiu and J.C. Grotta, Current Clinical Status of CytoprotectionT. Shirai, J.S. Meyer, and H. Akiyama, Management of Acute Stroke with Hyperosmolar AgentsF. McDowell, Rehabilitation for Victims of StrokeJ.L. Poole, Rehabilitation: Occupational Therapy for StrokeS.J. Olney and C.S. Martin, Diseases: Physical TherapyP.A. Wolf, Epidemiology and Risk Factor ManagementH.J.M. Barnett and H.E. Meldrum, The Prevention of Ischemic StrokeK. Murros and J.F. Toole, Management of Asymptomatic Extracranial Carotid Artery Disease. J.K. Roberts and J.P. Mohr, Stroke in EvolutionR.T.F. Cheung and V. Hachinski, Management of Vascular DementiaD.J. Thomas, Basilar ThrombosisH. Mansbach, Stroke Units R.G. Hart, Management of Atrial FibrillationD. Barbut and L.R. Caplan, Cerebrovascular Complications of Cardiac SurgeryR.G. Hart, Management of Atrial FibrillationJ.A. Zivin, Emerging Treatments for StrokeL.N. Hopkins, L.R. Guterman, and K.J.Gibbons, Endovascular Therapy for the Treatment of Cerebrovascular Disease.