Position Location Techniques and Applications


  • David Munoz
  • Frantz Bouchereau Lara
  • Cesar Vargas
  • Rogerio Enriquez-Caldera

This book is the definitive guide to the techniques and applications of position location, covering both terrestrial and satellite systems. It gives all the techniques, theoretical models, and algorithms that engineers need to improve their current location schemes and to develop future location algorithms and systems.

Comprehensive coverage is given to system design trade-offs, complexity issues, and the design of efficient positioning algorithms to enable the creation of high-performance location positioning systems. Traditional methods are also reexamined in the context of the challenges posed by reconfigurable and multihop networks. Applications discussed include wireless networks (WiFi, ZigBee, UMTS, and DVB networks), cognitive radio, sensor networks and multihop networks.


  • Contains a complete guide to models, techniques, and applications of position location
  • Includes applications to wireless networks, demonstrating the relevance of location positioning to these "hot" areas in research and development
  • Covers system design trade-offs and the design of efficient positioning algorithms, enabling the creation of future location positioning systems
  • Provides a theoretical underpinning for understanding current position location algorithms, giving researchers a foundation to develop future algorithms

David Muñoz is Director and César Vargas is a member of the Center for Electronics and Telecommunications, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico. Frantz Bouchereau is a senior communications software developer at The MathWorks Inc. in Natick, MA. Rogerio Enríquez-Caldera is at Instituto Nacional de Atrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Puebla, Mexico.

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R&D communications and signal processing engineers; applied researchers in universities


Book information

  • Published: April 2009
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-374353-4


"Overall, this book has a wider potential audience than communications engineers. Anyone involved in scanners, such as medical ultrasound instruments or robotic world-map builders for autonomous mobile vehicles, will have a possible interest in this book because the authors present their material in tutorial form, making it possible to benefit from the basic principles without being a communications specialist."--EN-Genius Network

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: The Position Location Problem1.1 The PL need and Historical Developments1.2 PL requirements and Limitation 1.2.1 Resolution 1.2.2 Fundamental Scenarios for PL1.3 Terrestrial and Satellite Scenarios 1.3.1 Terrestrial and Satellite Scenarios1.4 Current and Potential ApplicationsChapter 2: Signal Parameter Estimation for the Localization Problem2.1 AOA measurements 2.1.1 The uniform linear array model 2.1.2 Cramer Rao Bound for array observations2.2 Nonparametric Methods for Estimation of AOA 2.2.1 Beamscan AOA estimator 2.2.2 MVDR AOA estimator2.3 Parametric Methods for Estimation of AOA 2.3.1 Maximum likelihood AOA estimator 2.3.2 The MUSIC algorithm for AOA estimation 2.3.3 The ESPRIT Algorithm for AOA Estimation2.4 TOA and TDOA measurements 2.4.1 The TOA Problem 2.4.2 The TDOA Problem 2.4.3 Performance Bound for the TOA and TDOA Problems 2.4.4 Received Signal Model and its Analogy to the Array Processing Problem 2.4.5 The Generalized Cross-correlation Method For TOA or TDOA Estimation 2.4.6 Conventional PN-Correlation Method 2.4.7 A Superresolution PN-Correlation Method: The SPM Algorithm 2.4.8 TOA Estimation by Successive Cancelation2.5 Range Estimation Based on Receive Signal strength (RSS)2.6 Signal strength (RSS) 2.6.1 The log-normal propagation model 2.6.2 ML estimation of log-normal parameters 2.6.3 Lognormal Range EstimatorChapter 3: Location Information Processing3.1 The Multilateration Problem3.2 Geometrical multilateration 3.2.1 Geometrical multilateration based on time of arrival (TOA) measurements 3.2.2 Geometrical multilateration based on angle of arrival (AOA) measurements 3.2.3 Geometrical multilateration based on time difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements3.3 Statistical multilateration 3.3.1 Least-squares multilateration 3.3.2 Least-squares multilateration with uncertain reference node positions 3.3.3 Hybrid location estimation systems3.4 Location estimation in multi hop scenarios 3.4.1 The Centroid algorithm 3.4.2 Approximate point-in-triangulation (APIT) algorithm 3.4.3 Ad-Hoc positioning system (APS) algorithms 3.4.4 Dead reckoning3.5 Performance assessment of location estimation systems 3.5.1 Cramer-Rao bounds 3.5.2 Circular Error Probability 3.5.3 Geometric dilution of precision (GDOP)Chapter 4: Heuristic Approaches to the Position Location Problem4.1 Single hop and relational scenarios 4.1.1 Range-free location estimation systems 4.1.2 Signal signature4.2 Multi Hop Scenarios 4.2.1 Triangle concatenation 4.2.2 Random flight Pyramidal approach Estimation accuracy 4.2.3 Manhattanized algorithms Manhattan trilateration Vector projection algorithm A linear programming approach Three dimensional Manhattanized case 4.2.4 Relational and fuzzy approach Fuzzy proportional method Fuzzy hyperbolic algorithm Minimization on rough evidence Neighborhood method Relative distance location Location algorithm description First estimation Relational location adjustments Chapter 5: Terrestrial Based Location Systems5.1 From Cellular to Reconfigurable Networks 5.1.1 The Cellular Network Scenario 5.1.2 2G and 3G Technology Review 5.1.3 4G and Beyond 5.1.4 The Ad-Hoc and Sensor Network Scenarios5.2 Mobility in Wireless Networks 5.2.1 Capacity and Coverage Issues 5.2.2 Modeling Mobility 5.2.3 Dealing with Mobility 5.2.4 Mobility and Location Based Services5.3 Towards the Cognitive Radio Paradigm for Position Location 5.3.1 The Concept of Cognitive Radio 5.3.2 Multiple Antenna Systems 5.3.3 Basics of Cross-layering for Reconfigurable Networks 5.3.4 Cooperative and Collaborative Wireless Networks 5.3.5 Fundamentals of Space-Time Processing Chapter 6: Applications of Terrestrial Based Location Systems6.1 Cellular Systems 6.1.1 2G and 3G systems 6.1.2 Multihop Cellular 6.1.3 Cell ID 6.1.4 E9116.2 Local / Indoor Network Scenario 6.2.1 Technologies and Standards review 6.2.2 Localization with WiFi, Bluetooth and Zigbee 6.2.3 RFID, INS 6.2.4 System Comparison 6.2.5 Discussion on Systems Tradeoffs 6.3 Mesh Systems 6.3.1 Sensor Networks 6.3.2 Ad-Hoc Networks 6.3.3 Natural and Man-made DisastersChapter 7: Satellite Based Location Systems (6)7.1 Satellite Positioning 7.1.1 Absolute and Relative Positioning 7.1.2 Kinematics and Static7.2 Structure of a System for Satellite Positioning 7.2.1 Constellation Segment 7.2.2 Control Segment 7.2.3 User Segment7.3 Fundamental Concepts Involved 7.3.1 Ranging and timing 7.3.2 Precision and Accuracy 7.3.3 Civil and Security Considerations 7.3.4 Coordinate Systems7.4 Applications 7.4.1 Transport 7.4.2 Safety 7.4.3 Energy 7.4.4 Agriculture 7.4.5 Marine 7.4.6 Environment 7.4.7 Science 7.4.8 Surveying 7.4.9 Recreation 7.4.10 Mapping 7.4.11 Geosciences (Seismic & Volcanic predictions) 7.4.12 Commercial Uses, Services and Novel Business7.5 Sources of Errors 7.5.1 Stochastic 7.5.2 Systematic7.6 Trends and Comparison 7.6.1 GPS, Glonass and Galileo 7.6.2 Developments in perspective 7.6.3 Integrations of Satellite and ground-based location systemsReferencesAppendix 1: Signal PropagationA1. Large scale fading A1.1 Path Loss A1.2 Shadowing modelsA2. Small scale fading A2.2 Time dispersion effects A2.3 Frequency dispersion effects A2.4 Multipath channel impulse response A2.5 The channel scattering function A2.6 Clark’s flat fading model A2.7 Multipath channel simulationA3. Compound fading models