- W. Littmann
This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past, polymer flooding was mainly the subject of research. The results of this research are spread over a vast number of single publications, making it difficult for someone who has not kept up-to-date with developments during the last 10 to 15 years to judge the suitability of polymer flooding to a particular field case. This book tries to fill that gap.The basic mechanisms of the process are described and criteria given where it may be employed. Basic elements of the chemistry of EOR-polymers are provided. The fundamentals of polymer physics, such as rheology, flow in porous media and adsorption, are derived. Practical hints on mixing and testing of polymers in the laboratory are given, as well as instructions for their application in the oil field. Polymer flooding is illustrated by some case histories and the economics of the methods are examined. For the essential subjects, example calculations are added.An indispensable book for reservoir engineers, production engineers and laboratory technicians within the petroleum industry.
Developments in Petroleum Science
Published: September 1988
- 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. MECHANICS OF POLYMER FLOODING. 3. SCREENING PROCEDURES. Reservoir geometry. Reservoir rock. Reservoir depth and temperature. Crude oil. Reservoir brine. Polymer selection. Resistance factor. Injectivity testing. Thermal and chemical stability. Displacement tests. Adsorption. 4. CHEMISTRY OF EOR-POLYMERS. Synthetic polymers. Polyacrylamide. Other synthetic polymers. Polysaccharides. Hydroxyethylcellulose. Xanthan. Other Polysaccharides. Degradation mechanisms. Mechanical degradation. Chemical degradation. Biological degradation. Stabilisation of polymer solutions. Polymer production. Synthetic polymers. Fermentation processes. 5. PHYSICS OF EOR-POLYMERS. Rheology. Definitions. Friction laws. Flow in cylindrical pipes. General flow equations. Flow of Newtonian fluids in pipes - Hagen-Poiseuille's law. Laminar flow of pseudo plastic liquids through pipes. Reynold's criterium. Measurement of flow curves. Capillary viscometers. Rotational viscometers. Other viscometers. Molecule size, structure and viscosity. Elastic viscosity. Measuring elastic viscosity. Flow of polymer solutions in porous media. Darcy's law. Flow of pseudoplastic liquids. Viscoelastic effects in flow through porous media. Calculation of pressure drop in flood tests. Shear stability. Inaccessible pore volume. Pore size distribution. Dispersion. Adsorption. Adsorption isothermes. Adsorption isothermes of xanthan. Heat of adsorption. Measuring adsorption isothermes: Static experiments; Flow experiments; Calorimetric methods. 6. LABORATORY TESTING OF EOR-POLYMERS. Polymer mixing. Polyacrylamides. Xanthan. Hydroxyethyl cellulose. Shearing of polymer solutions. Stability testing. Solution stability. Long term thermal stability. Biological stability. Injectability testing. Filter tests. Injectivity testing on core plugs and sand packs. Oil displacement tests. Crude oil. Porous medium. Saturating with water. Saturating with oil. 7. RESERVOIR ENGINEERING ASPECTS. Evaluation of reservoir characteristics. Injection wells. Pressure distribution in the reservoir. Injection pressure. Pressure testing. Flood patterns. Numerical reservoir simulation. Other applications of polymers. Profile modification. Polymer flooding and steam flooding. 8. SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE EQUIPMENT. Injection water. Preparation of injection water. Injection water quality. Polymer mixing. Shipping. Storage. Mixing powders and gels. Mixing liquid polymers: Polyacryamide emulsions; Xanthan broths. Pumps. Static mixers, injectors and shearing devices. Filters. Materials, control equipment. Injection wells. 9. CASE HISTORIES. Chateaurenard. North Stanley. Hankensbuettel. Eddesse-Nord. Profile modification. Project design. 10. APPRAISAL AND ECONOMICS. Numerical simulation of a five spot pattern. Economics. Valuation of the produced oil. Investments. Lifting costs. Chemical costs. Specific costs. Outlook. List of symbols and units. APPENDICES. A. Chemical structure of polysaccharides. B. Chemical analysis of polymers in produced field waters. Polyacrylamide: Turbidimetry; Iodemetric method; Ammonium detection. Xanthan. C. Measurement of flow curves. D. Example calculation for pressure drop in pipes. Pressure drop for water. Pressure drop for a polymer solution. Pressure drop for a xanthan broth. E. Elastic viscosity - flood experiments. F. Rate of shear strain in perforations. G. Accuracy of calculations of rate of shear strain in a porous medium. Comparison of different equations. Relevance to two-phase flow. H. Example calculation on dispersion. I. Polymer mixing in the laboratory. Mixing powders. Mixing exulsions: Activator; Mixing water; Preparing a stock solution; Preparing a final solution. Shearing: Layout of shear plates. J. Chemistry of iron hydroxides and iron oxides. Iron - II - hydroxide. Dissolved iron - III - hydroxides. Iron stabilizing agents. AUTHOR INDEX. SUBJECT INDEX.