Plant Roots and Their Environment
- B.L. McMichael, Cropping Systems Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.D.A., Lubbock, TX, USA
- H. Persson, Swedish University of Agriculture, Department of Forest Ecology, Upsala, Sweden
Scientists, within a wide field, ranging from applied forestry and agriculture to physiology, ecology and the environmental sciences, are today more than ever involved in root and mycorrhizal research. New problem-oriented research fields have arisen such as the effects of fertilizers and pesticides, forest management and regeneration etc. At a time when root research is expanding into different areas, it is much more difficult for the root scientist to penetrate all the new information appearing in literature.The contributors of this volume are leading scientists from different fields of root research. The ISRR-symposium in Uppsala clearly demonstrated that there are new techniques in progress, in particular with regards to video recording of plant root systems and digital image processing. The main objectives of the symposium were (i) to provide a forum for communication between scientists from different disciplines working with root research problems, (ii) to contribute to an expansion of root studies into new areas, (iii) to use current estimates of root turnover for charting the upper and lower limit of below-ground production, and (iv) to spread knowledge of new findings and techniques of the importance of root research.This book is aimed at serving as a vehicle for improving the coherence of root research, for harmonizing methods and establishing overall objectives and gaps in the knowledge of rhizosphere dynamics.View full description
- Published: September 1991
- Imprint: ELSEVIER
- ISBN: 978-0-444-89104-4
Table of ContentsIntroduction 1. Short Review of the present state of root research 2. Effect of exogenous factors on water relations in maize roots. 3. The development of absorption and transport systems in the corn root: structural and experimental evidence. 4. Properties of root membrane lipids as related to mineral nutrition. 5. Composition of root exchange sites in acid soil solutions. 6. Calcium stimulation of ammonium absorption in plants. 7. Effect of the nitrate level on growth and some aspects of energy metabolism in maize roots. 8. Effects of A13 on seedling growth of silver birch, Scots pine and Norway spruce at steady state nutrition. 9. Growth of excised maize roots (Zea mays L.) at increasing N-levels. 10. Nitrate uptake in response to soluable carbohydrates from roots and shoots of young maize plants (Zea mays L.). 11. Physiological and morphological changes in maize plants under various flooding conditions. 12. Short-term determination of the actual respiration rate of intact plant roots. 13. Soil and root phosphatase activity and the utilization of inositol phosphates as dependent on phosphorous supply. 14. Biological weathering of micas in the rhizosphere as related to potassium absorption by plant roots. 15. The effects of platinum complexes and other heavy salts on root growth. 16. Cytochemical localization of ATPase in root tissues. 17. Significance of physiological differentiation of root activities among rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). 18. Water content and cell elongation in protruding and growing roots. 19. Growth of cereal roots in different concentrations of metal ions. 20. Effect of soil water and nutrient supply on root characteristics and nutrient uptake of plants. 21. Morphology of maize root systems influenced by local supply of nitrate or ammonia. 22. Ultrastructural features of epidermis and cortex in aerial roots of Bulbophyllum. 23. Various forms of root action influencing the availability of soil and fertilizer phosphorus. 24. Input of organic matter to the soil by the tree roots. 25. Root growth of spruce seedlings cultivated on a lime-rich, acidified soil substrate. 26. Root investigations in energy forests on rotavated peat soils in Southern Sweden. 27. Variation in nutrient concentrations of Scots pine roots. 28. Below-ground energy productivity of Norway spruce forest: a preliminary report. 29. Above-ground and below-ground biomass of the herb layer in Slovakia's forest ecosystems. 30. Effect of aluminium on the roots of Picea abies seedlings. 31. The influence of climatic and soil physical conditions on growth and morphology of Norway spruce roots. 32. Effect of acid pollutants on the development of the root system of Norway spruce. 33. Root-shoot balance of Hevea planting materials. 34. Effects of increasing Ca on NH absorption and growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies L., Karst.) seedlings. 35. Combined effect of aluminium and nitrogen forms on root growth of ten ecologically distinct plant species. 36. Biomass of roots in natural oak-hornbeam ecosystems. 37. Estimation of rate transfer from dead rootlets to organic matter in acid forest soild. 38. Quantification of edaphic factors influencing root growth. 39. The importance of mycorrhiza for roots. 40. VAM fungi in reforestation. 41. Microbial ecology of the rhizosphere microflora of Crotalaria retusa L. in relation to flyash. 42. Influence of waterlogging on root distribution, fine-root biomass and mycorrhizal number in Norway spruce. 43. Correlation between root morphogenesis, VA mycorrhizal infection and phosphorous nutrition. 44. Nitrogen nutrition and mycorrhiza development. 45. Root research in natural ecosystems. 46. C-14 translocation to the below-ground subsystems in a temperate grassland (Argentina). 47. Spatial root types. 48. Influence of environmental conditions on anatomic structures. 49. Productivity in grasslands of the U.S.S.R. 50. Root function in agricultural systems. 51. Interaction between VA mycorrhizal fungi and root microflora of jute. 52. Effect of tillage practice on maize (Zea mays L.) root distribution. 53. Factors affecting the growth and distribution of winter wheat roots under field conditions. 54. The effects of waterlogging on rooting of soft red winter wheat. 55. Root growth of kiwifruit vines and the impact of canopy manipulations. 56. Effect of soil CaCO3 content on root growth and nutrient uptake. 57. Effects of soil volume on root growth and nutrient uptake. 58. Root exudation in Beta vulgaris: a comparision with Zea mays. 59. Morphological aspects of root systems in rice plants. 60. Responses of growth, shoot to shoot ratio and cytokinin concentration in root tissues of two barley varieties with different salt resistance. 61. The influence of cultivation on root growth of winter barley. 62. Rooting depth and spatial arrangement of roots in winter wheat. 63. The effect of non-ionic an ionic detergents on the growth of cucumber seedlings. 64. Effect opf VA mycorrhiza inoculated on roots of Zea mays. 65. Mycorrhizal colonization in roots of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species. 66. Spatial barrangement of maize roots in the field. 67. Review of quantitative root length data in agriculture. 68. Peltophorum pterocarpa (Dc.) back (Caesalpiniaceae), a tree with a root distribution suitable for alley cropping on acid soils in the humid tropics. 69. Castor roots in a vertic inceptisol. 70. The effect of root/shoot ratios on the water relationship of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.) 71. Some methods of root investigations. 72. Root length density from core-break observations: source of error. 73. Digital picture processing applied to evaluating of plant root dynamics. 74. A technique for the study of plant growth and dry matter partitioning at a steady state nutrition. 75. Visual estimation of root length along observation tubes. 76. Root structure of corn (Zea mays L.). 1. Parameters describing the structure. 77. A plant growth system to facilitate root observations and treatments. 78. Comparison of in situ root observation with rhizoscope, video recording and endoscope. 79. Root structure of corn (Zea may L.). 2. A three-dimensional simulation model. 80. Modelling the root system architecture: experimental data on maize root systems geometry. 81. An intermittent aeroponics systems adaptable to root research. 82. A rapid screening method to describe genetic variability in root development of cerals. 83. Genetic variability in root development to competition among plants of spring barley (H. Vulgare L.) and otas (A. sativa L.) sown at a wide range of densities.