Pipelines and Risers
- Yong Bai, American Bureau of Shipping, USA
For engineers and post graduate students who work on pipelines, risers and piping.
- Published: February 2001
- Imprint: ELSEVIER
- ISBN: 978-0-08-043712-5
Table of ContentsSeries Preface. Foreword. Preface. Introduction. Introduction. Design stages and process. Design through analysis (DTA). Pipeline design Analysis. Pipeline simulator. References. Wall-thickness and Material Grade Selection. General. Material grade selection. Pressure containment (hoop stress) design. Equivalent stress criterion. Hydrostatic collapse. Wall thickness and length design for buckle arrestors. Buckle arrestor spacing design. References. Buckling/Collapse of Deepwater Metallic Pipes. General. Pipe capacity under single load. Pipe capacity under couple load. Pipes under pressure axial force and bending. Finite element model. References. Limit-state Based Strength Design. Introduction. Out of roundness serviceability limit. Bursting. Local buckling/collapse. Fracture. Fatigue. Ratcheting. Dynamic strength criteria. Accumulated plastic strain. Strain concentration at field joints due to coatings. References. Soil and Pipe Interaction. General. Pipe penetration in soil. Modeling friction and breakout forces. References. Hydrodynamics Around Pipes. Wave simulators. Choice of wave theory. Mathematical formulations used in the wave simulators. Steady currents. Hydrodynamic forces. References. Finite Element Analysis of In-situ Behavior. Introduction. Description of the finite element model. Steps in an analysis and choice of analysis procedure. Element types used in the model. Non-linearity and seabed model. Validation of the finite-element model. References. On-bottom Stability. General. Force balance: the simplified method. Acceptance criteria. Special purpose program for stability analysis. Use of FE analysis for intervention design. References. Vortex-induced Vibrations (VIV) and Fatigue. General. Free-span VIV analysis procedure. Fatigue design criteria. Response amplitude. Modal analysis. Example cases. References. Force Model and Wave Fatigue. Introduction. Fatigue analysis. Force model. Comparisons of frequency domain and time domain approaches. Conclusions and recommendations. References. Trawl Impact, Pullover and Hooking Loads. Introduction. Trawl gears. Acceptance criteria. Impact response analysis. Pullover loads. Finite element model for pullover response analyses. Case study. References. Installation Design. Introduction. Pipeline installation vessels. Software OFFPIPE and code requirements. Physical background for installation. Finite element analysis procedure for installation of in-line valves. Two medium pipeline design concept. References. Reliability-Based Strength Design of Pipelines. General. Reliability-based design. Uncertainty measures. Calibration of safety factors. Buckling/collapse of corroded pipes. Conclusions. References. Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipes. Introduction. Review of existing criteria. Development of new criteria. Evaluation of new criteria. Reliability-based design. Example applications. Conclusions. References. Residual Strength of Dented Pipes with Cracks. Introduction. Fracture of pipes with longitudinal cracks. Fracture of pipes with circumferential cracks. Reliability-based assessment and calibration of safety factors. Design examples. Conclusions. References. Risk Analysis Applied to Subsea Pipeline Engineering. Introduction. Acceptance criteria. Identification of initiating events. Cause analysis. Probability of initiating events. Causes of risks. Consequence analysis. Example 1: risk analysis for a subsea gas pipeline. Example 2: dropped object risk analysis. References. Route Optimization, Tie-in and Protection. Introduction. Pipeline routing. Pipeline tie-ins. Flowline trenching/burying. Flowline rockdumping. Equipment dayrates. References. Pipeline Inspection, Maintenance and Repair. Operations. Inspection by intelligent pigging. Maintenance. Pipeline repair methods. Deepwater pipeline repair. References. Use of High Strength Steel. Review of usage of high strength steel linepipes. Potential benefits and disadvantages of high strength steel. Welding of high strength linepipe. Cathodic protection. Fatigue and fracture of high strength steel. Material property requirements. References. Design of Deepwater Risers. General. Descriptions of riser system. Metallic catenary riser for deepwater environments. Stresses and service life of flexible pipes. Drilling and workover risers. Riser projects in Norway. References. Design Codes and Criteria for Risers. Design guidelines for marine riser design. Design criteria for deepwater metallic risers. Limit state design criteria. Design conditions and loads. Improving design codes and guidelines. Comparison of ISO and API codes with Hauch and Bai (1999). References. Fatigue of Risers. General. Fatigue causes. Riser VIV analysis program. Flexible riser analysis program. Vortex-induced vibration prediction. Fatigue life. Vortex-induced vibration suppression devices. Fatigue of deepwater metallic risers. References. Piping Systems. Introduction. Design criteria. Load cases. Finite element models. References. Pipe-in-Pipe and Bundle Systems. General. Pipe-in-pipe system. Bundle system. References. LCC Modeling as a Decision Making Tool in Pipeline Design. Introduction. Initial cost. Financial risk. Time value of money. Fabrication tolerance example using the life-cycle cost model. On-bottom stability example. References. Design Examples. General. Åsgard flowlines project. Åsgard transport project. References. Subject Index.