Physics in Biology and Medicine book cover

Physics in Biology and Medicine

Physics in Biology and Medicine, Fourth Edition explores concepts in physics as they apply to living systems. The discussion is organized into 18 chapters encompassing thermodynamics, electricity, optics, sound, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, and atomic and nuclear physics. Each chapter provides a brief review of the background physics before focusing on the applications of physics to biology and medicine. The book describes biological systems and presents calculations of the forces exerted by muscles, as well as the maximum impact that can be sustained by a body without injury, the height from which a person can jump, the effect of an animals size on the speed at which it can run, and the circulation of blood in the body. Using the theory of fluids, the role of diffusion in the functioning of cells and the effect of surface tension on the growth of plants in soil are also analyzed. Using the principles of electricity, the conduction of impulses along the nervous system is investigated. Each section contains problems that explore and expand some of the concepts, and some of the techniques of physics and engineering are applied to the study of living systems. Moreover, the use of lasers in medical diagnostics and the applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine are considered. This book will be a valuable resource for students and professors of physics, biology, and medicine, as well as for applied health workers.

Premed students, Doctors, nurses, physiologists, or other applied health workers, and other individuals who wish to understand the nature of the mechanics of our bodies

Paperback, 352 Pages

Published: December 2012

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-386513-7


  • "The text provides clear descriptions of medical devices and techniques such as MRI, CAT scan and cochlear implant. It discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively and shows how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical or engineering analysis techniques."--Anticancer Research, August 2013

    Reviews from the 2e:

    "This is a book you should consider if you are teaching the one-semester premed course. This text could be used in two ways: 1) as a text for a one-term course in the physics of the body (without calculus) for non-physics majors in premed or allied health programs, or 2) as a supplementary text for the introductory physics course, particularly for premed students."--Russell Hobbie, University of Minnesota
    "There is certainly a viable market (for this book), if not as a stand-alone physics text, as a collection of problems, examples, and discussions at the boundary between physics and biology and medicine. It is very well written; it is certainly accurate; and it is pretty complete."--David Cinabro, Wayne State University


  • Preface


    1 Static Forces

        1.1 Equilibrium and Stability

        1.2 Equilibrium Considerations for the Human Body

        1.3 Stability of the Human Body under the Action of an External Force

        1.4 Skeletal Muscles

        1.5 Levers

        1.6 The Elbow

        1.7 The Hip

             1.7.1 Limping

        1.8 The Back

        1.9 Standing Tip-Toe on One Foot

        1.10 Dynamic Aspects of Posture


    2 Friction

        2.1 Standing at an Incline

        2.2 Friction at the Hip Joint

        2.3 Spine Fin of a Catfish


    3 Translational Motion

        3.1 Vertical Jump

        3.2 Effect of Gravity on the Vertical Jump

        3.3 Running High Jump

        3.4 Range of a Projectile

        3.5 Standing Broad Jump

        3.6 Running Broad Jump (Long Jump)

        3.7 Motion through Air

        3.8 Energy Consumed in Physical Activity


    4 Angular Motion

        4.1 Forces on a Curved Path

        4.2 A Runner on a Curved Track

        4.3 Pendulum

        4.4 Walking

        4.5 Physical Pendulum

        4.6 Speed of Walking and Running

        4.7 Energy Expended in Running

        4.8 Alternate Perspectives on Walking and Running

        4.9 Carrying Loads


    5 Elasticity and Strength of Materials

        5.1 Longitudinal Stretch and Compression

        5.2 A Spring

        5.3 Bone Fracture: Energy Considerations

        5.4 Impulsive Forces

        5.5 Fracture Due to a Fall: Impulsive Force Considerations

        5.6 Airbags: Inflating Collision Protection Devices

        5.7 Whiplash Injury

        5.8 Falling from Great Height

        5.9 Osteoarthritis and Exercise


    6 Insect Flight

        6.1 Hovering Flight

        6.2 Insect Wing Muscles

        6.3 Power Required for Hovering

        6.4 Kinetic Energy of Wings in Flight

        6.5 Elasticity of Wings


    7 Fluids

        7.1 Force and Pressure in a Fluid

        7.2 Pascal’s Principle

        7.3 Hydrostatic Skeleton

        7.4 Archimedes’ Principle

        7.5 Power Required to Remain Afloat

        7.6 Buoyancy of Aquatic Animals

        7.7 Surface Tension

        7.8 Soil Water

        7.9 Insect Locomotion on Water

        7.10 Contraction of Muscles

        7.11 Surfactants


    8 The Motion of Fluids

        8.1 Bernoulli’s Equation

        8.2 Viscosity and Poiseuille’s Law

        8.3 Turbulent Flow

        8.4 Circulation of the Blood

        8.5 Blood Pressure

        8.6 Control of Blood Flow

        8.7 Energetics of Blood Flow

        8.8 Turbulence in the Blood

        8.9 Arteriosclerosis and Blood Flow

        8.10 Power Produced by the Heart

        8.11 Measurement of Blood Pressure


    9 Heat and Kinetic Theory

        9.1 Heat and Hotness

        9.2 Kinetic Theory of Matter

        9.3 Definitions

             9.3.1 Unit of Heat

             9.3.2 Specific Heat

             9.3.3 Latent Heats

        9.4 Transfer of Heat

             9.4.1 Conduction

             9.4.2 Convection

             9.4.3 Radiation

             9.4.4 Diffusion

        9.5 Transport of Molecules by Diffusion

        9.6 Diffusion through Membranes

        9.7 The Respiratory System

        9.8 Surfactants and Breathing

        9.9 Diffusion and Contact Lenses


    10 Thermodynamics

        10.1 First Law of Thermodynamics

        10.2 Second Law of Thermodynamics

        10.3 Difference between Heat and Other Forms of Energy

        10.4 Thermodynamics of Living Systems

        10.5 Information and the Second Law


    11 Heat and Life

        11.1 Energy Requirements of People

             11.1.1 Basal Metabolic Rate and Body Size

        11.2 Energy from Food

        11.3 Regulation of Body Temperature

        11.4 Control of Skin Temperature

        11.5 Convection

        11.6 Radiation

        11.7 Radiative Heating by the Sun

        11.8 Evaporation

        11.9 Resistance to Cold

        11.10 Heat and Soil


    12 Waves and Sound

        12.1 Properties of Sound

        12.2 Some Properties of Waves

             12.2.1 Reflection and Refraction

             12.2.2 Interference

             12.2.3 Diffraction

        12.3 Hearing and the Ear

             12.3.1 Performance of the Ear

             12.3.2 Frequency and Pitch

             12.3.3 Intensity and Loudness

        12.4 Bats and Echoes

        12.5 Sounds Produced by Animals

        12.6 Acoustic Traps

        12.7 Clinical Uses of Sound

        12.8 Ultrasonic Waves


    13 Electricity

        13.1 The Nervous System

             13.1.1 The Neuron

             13.1.2 Electrical Potentials in the Axon

             13.1.3 Action Potential

             13.1.4 Axon as an Electric Cable

             13.1.5 Propagation of the Action Potential

             13.1.6 An Analysis of the Axon Circuit

             13.1.7 Synaptic Transmission

             13.1.8 Action Potentials in Muscles

             13.1.9 Surface Potentials

        13.2 Electricity in Plants

        13.3 Electricity in the Bone

        13.4 Electric Fish


    14 Electrical Technology

        14.1 Electrical Technology in Biological Research

        14.2 Diagnostic Equipment

             14.2.1 The Electrocardiograph

             14.2.2 The Electroencephalograph

        14.3 Physiological Effects of Electricity

        14.4 Control Systems

        14.5 Feedback

        14.6 Sensory Aids

             14.6.1 Hearing Aids

             14.6.2 Cochlear Implant


    15 Optics

        15.1 Vision

        15.2 Nature of Light

        15.3 Structure of the Eye

        15.4 Accommodation

        15.5 Eye and the Camera

             15.5.1 Aperture and Depth of Field

        15.6 Lens System of the Eye

        15.7 Reduced Eye

        15.8 Retina

        15.9 Resolving Power of the Eye

        15.10 Threshold of Vision

        15.11 Vision and the Nervous System

        15.12 Defects in Vision

        15.13 Lens for Myopia

        15.14 Lens for Presbyopia and Hyperopia

        15.15 Extension of Vision

             15.15.1 Telescope

             15.15.2 Microscope

             15.15.3 Confocal Microscopy

             15.15.4 Fiber Optics


    16 Atomic Physics

        16.1 The Atom

        16.2 Spectroscopy

        16.3 Quantum Mechanics

        16.4 Electron Microscope

        16.5 X-rays

        16.6 X-ray Computerized Tomography

        16.7 Lasers

             16.7.1 Lasers Surgery

             16.7.2 Lasers in Medical Imaging

             16.7.3 Lasers in Medical Diagnostics

        16.8 Atomic Force Microscopy


    17 Nuclear Physics

        17.1 The Nucleus

        17.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging

             17.2.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

             17.2.2 Imaging with NMR

             17.2.3 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

        17.3 Radiation Therapy

        17.4 Food Preservation by Radiation

        17.5 Isotopic Tracers

        17.6 Laws of Physics and Life


    18 Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine

        18.1 Nanostructures

        18.2 Nanotechnology

        18.3 Some Properties of Nanostructures

             18.3.1 Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles

             18.3.2 Surface Properties of Metal Nanoparticles

             18.3.3 Superhydrophilicity of Nano-Structured Surfaces

        18.4 Medical Applications of Nanotechnology

             18.4.1 Nanoparticles as Biosensors

             18.4.2 Nanotechnology in Cancer Therapy

             18.4.3 Passive Targeted Heating of Tumors

             18.4.4 Targeted Drug Delivery

             18.4.5 Silver Nanoparticles in Medicine

        18.5 Concerns Over Use of Nanoparticles in Consumer Products


    Appendix A: Basic Concepts in Mechanics

    Appendix B: Review of Electricity

    Appendix C: Review of Optics


    Answers to Numerical Exercises



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