Physical Properties of Rocks
- Juergen Schön, Montanuniversität, Leoben, Austria
In two special chapters the problem of relationships between petrophysical parameters based on various model concepts is presented as a foundation for combined interpretation. This part also contains the author's 'structured model'.
The workbook is a result of the more than 40 years experience of the author in teaching at universities and industrial courses.
AudienceStudents and professionals working in the areas of applied geophysics, well-log analysis, and reservoir engineering as well as geophysicists in engineering, geotechnics, hydrogeology, and geothermal applications
- Published: June 2011
- Imprint: ELSEVIER
- ISBN: 978-0-444-53796-6
Table of Contents
Introduction 1. Rocks - their classification and composition Overview, Introduction Igneous (magmatic) rocks Metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks 2. Pore space properties Overview, Introduction Porosity Specific internal surface Fluids in the pore space - the term "saturation" Permeability Wettability Fluid distribution - capillary pressure in a reservoir 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) petrophysical properties Physical origin, the principle of a NMR-measurement Description of the relaxation process (longitudinal and transverse relaxation) NMR Relaxation mechanisms of fluids in pores and fluid-surface effects Bulk relaxation and surface relaxation Diffusion-induced relaxation Description of relaxation as a multi-exponential decay - data inversion Applications Porosity and pore volume partitioning Pore size, capillary pressure and permeability estimate Fluid (hydrocarbon) typing 4 Density Definition and units Density of rock constituents Density of rocks 5 .Nuclear/Radioactive Properties Fundamentals Natural radioactivity Origin of natural gamma radiation Potassium, Uranium, and Thorium in minerals Potassium, uranium, and thorium content of rocks Spectral and integral measurements - the API unit Applications Radioactive heat generation Gamma Interactions Fundamentals Gamma-Gamma-PE measurement for mineral identification Gamma-Gamma-Density measurement and porosity estimate Neutron interactions Fundamentals Porosity from neutron measurements 6. Elastic Properties Fundamentals Results of experimental investigations, empirical equations Rock constituents Velocity of igneous and metamorphic rocks Velocity of sedimentary rocks Relationships between Vp and Vs - the Castagna equation AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) - basic principles and link to physical properties Anisotropy Theories Overview Bounds for elastic moduli: Voigt, Reuss and Hashin-Shtrikman bounds Sphere pack models nclusion models A simpified model for fractured rocks Gassman and Biot model - modelling of fluid effects The problem of multiphase pore fluids Inelastic properties - attenuation of elastic waves Overview, definition and units Absorption of elastic waves in rocks - overview Absorption of seismic waves in igneous rocks Absorption of seismic waves in sedimentary rocks Absorption mechanisms . 7 . Electrical properties Fundamentals Electrical properties of rock components Minerals - solid components Pore fluids Specific electrical resistivity of Rocks Overview The specific electrical resistivity of porous clean rocks - Archie’s equations Partial water saturation Archie - rocks: Theories and models Sheet models Inclusion models Capillary models Shaly sands Introduction - The Shaly Sand Problem Laminated Shaly Sands - the Poupon Equation Dispersed Shaly Sand - the Waxman-Smits Equation Dual Water Model Simandoux Equation (1963) Indonesia Equation Comparison of some shaly sand equations Dielectric properties of rocks Conduction and Polarization - the complex nature of the two processes Experimental results - the real component of permittivity Theories and models Spectral Induced Polarization Basic mechanisms Traditional parameters of IP measurements IP in ore containing rocks IP in porous rocks 8. Thermal Properties Thermal properties of minerals and pore contents Thermal properties of rocks - experimental data Overview Thermal properties of magmatic and metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks Some notes about thermal expansion Theories and models Sheet models - series and parallel model Sheet models - modifications and comparable mixing rules Inclusion models 9. Magnetic properties Basics and units Magnetic properties of rock constituents Magnetic properties of rocks Overview - Rock Magnetization Susceptibility range for rock types - induced magnetization Correlations between susceptibility and content of magnetic substances Natural remanent magnetization (NRM) 10. Geomechanical properties Overview, Introduction Classification parameters Fundamental geomechanical properties and processes Correlation between static and dynamic moduli Correlation between geophysical properties and strength properties 11. Relationships between petrophysical properties - fundamentals of combined interpretation Introduction and motivation Empirical equations Relationships based on sheet models Fundamentals of combined interpretation volume based models Determination of volumetric rock composition (mineral fractions, porosity) of porous rocks - 12. Model with internal structure and bonding properties The concept of a "structured model" Porosity Electrical properties - resistivity Elastic wave velocities General equation Discussion of the "porosity-factor" Discussion of the "contact elasticity-factor" Change of structure and bonding Strength properties - a relationship between velocity and strength References