Theoretical Fundamentals and ApplicationsEdited by
- H. Mauser
- G. Gauglitz, Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, D-72076, Tübingen, Germany
Many books cover the determination of rate constants under different experimental conditions and different chemical composition of the reaction mixture in their formal treatment of thermal kinetics. However, most textbooks are limited to simple mechanisms. In contrast, analogous treatment of photochemical reactions is limited to the publication of special reactions and investigations. Therefore, this book is aimed at providing an overall description of formal photokinetics covering a wider scope than the usual books on kinetics.
This volume attempts to provide a concise treatment of both thermo- and photochemical reactions by means of generalised differential equations, their set-up in matrix notation, and their solution by a formalism using numerical integration. At a first glance this approach might be surprising. However, apart from the argument that the didactics of thermal reactions are easier to handle than those of kinetics, the book provides additional reasons in support of this approach. Therefore, the formalism derived allows the evaluation of photochemical reactions, which are superimposed thermal reactions taking into account that the amount of light absorbed varies during the reaction. Because of this, any approximation, either by using total absorbance or negligible absorbance, will cause considerable errors even for simple reactions. The approach chosen to transform the axis of the radiation time into a new variable that includes the photokinetic factor proves that formal kinetics can be applied to thermal and photochemical reactions as well, and even allows the handling of solutions that cannot be homogenised or solid samples in which the concentration varies locally. By using this approach to introduce partial photochemical quantum yields even complex mechanisms can be determined quantitatively.
A large number of examples for different mechanisms and an introduction to many spectroscopic and chromatographic methods suitable for photokinetic analyses are provided to enable the reader to carry out a step-by-step evaluation of his own measurements. To reduce the number of formula in some chapters an appendix has been included which contains a detailed description of the calculus of some essential examples. For the convenience of the reader the following has been included:
• A large number of examples describing the use of formula• A detailed description of the procedure for applying photokinetics to complex consecutive photoreactions
• An Internet address where the reader can find a tutorial for this procedure:
For researchers and professionals in industry, university and government institutions and advanced students.
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics
Published: September 1998
- Chapter headings and selected papers: Introduction. General considerations. Stoichiometry of chemical reactions. Photophysics. Photochemistry and photokinetics. General Approach in Formal Kinetics. Fundamentals. General approach to linear systems of reactions. Information about reactions supplied by graphs. Applications to selected systems. Methods of approximations. Special Considerations for Simple and Complex Photochemical Reactions. Relationship between quantum yield and mechanism. Explicit differential equations in photokinetics. The integration of the differential equation. Photoreactions in viscous media. Survey on approaches for selected examples. Experimental Techniques in Photokinetic Analysis. Introduction. Absorption measurement. Fluorescence measurements. Reflectance measurements. Chromatographic methods. Special methods. Process control in kinetics. Determination of intensity of irradiation. Applications of Kinetic Analysis to Photoreactions. Evaluation of measurements of concentrations. Evaluation of linear dependent measured values. Evaluation of absorbance-time measurements. Fluorescence. Combination of methods. Photoreactions in viscous material. Appendix. Reaction scheme. Simple photochemical reactions. Simple thermal reactions. Examples for the determination of concentrations. Consecutive reactions with superimposed back-reactions. Relationship between quantum yield and photomechanism. Example of a photokinetic evaluation. References. Subject Index.