Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics

2nd Edition


  • Erling Fjar, SINTEF Petroleum Research and Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • R.M. Holt, Norwegian University of Science & Technology and SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim, Norway
  • A.M. Raaen, IKU, Trondheim, Norway
  • R. Risnes, Rogaland University Centre, Stavanger, Norway
  • P. Horsrud

Engineers and geologists in the petroleum industry will find Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics, 2E, a powerful resource in providing a basis of rock mechanical knowledge - a knowledge which can greatly assist in the understanding of field behavior, design of test programs and the design of field operations. Not only does this text give an introduction to applications of rock mechanics within the petroleum industry, it has a strong focus on basics, drilling, production and reservoir engineering. Assessment of rock mechanical parameters is covered in depth, as is acoustic wave propagation in rocks, with possible link to 4D seismics as well as log interpretation.
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Engineers and geologists in the petroleum industry


Book information

  • Published: January 2008
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-50260-5

Table of Contents

Preface to the second edition.
Foreword to the 1992 edition.
Preface to the 1992 edition.
1. Elasticity.

1.1 Stress.
1.2 Strain.
1.3 Elastic moduli.
1.4 Strain energy.
1.5 Thermoelasticity.
1.6 Poroelasticity.
1.7 Anisotropy.
1.8 Non-linearelasticity.
1.9 Time-dependent effects.
2. Failure mechanics.
2.1 Basic concepts.
2.2 Tensile failure.
2.3 Shear failure.
2.4 Compaction failure.
2.5 Failure criteria in three dimensions.
2.6 Fluid effects.
2.7 Presentation and interpretation of data from failure tests.
2.8 Beyond the yield point.
2.9 Failure of anisotropic and fractured rocks.
2.10 Stress history effects.
3. Geological aspects of petroleum related rock mechanics.
3.1 Underground stresses.
3.2 Pore pressure.
3.3 Sedimentological aspects.
3.4 Mechanical properties of sedimentary rocks.
4. Stresses around boreholes – Borehole failure criteria.
4.1 Stresses and strains in cylindrical coordinates.
4.2 Stresses in a hollow cylinder.
4.3 Elastic stresses around wells — the general solution.
4.4 Poroelastic time dependent effects.
4.5 Borehole failure criteria.
4.6 Beyond failure initiation.
4.7 Spherical coordinates.
5. Elastic wave propagation in rocks.
5.1 The wave equation.
5.2 P-and S-waves.
5.3 Elastic waves in porous materials.
5.4 Attenuation.
5.5 Anisotropy.
5.6 Rock mechanics and rock acoustics.
5.7 Reflections and refractions.
5.8 Bore hole acoustics.
5.9 Seismics.
6. Rock models.
6.1 Layered media.
6.2 Models involving porosity only.
6.3 Grainpack models.
6.4 Models for cracks and other inclusions.
6.5 Fractured rocks.
7. Mechanical properties and stress data from laboratory analysis.
7.1 Core samples for rock mechanical laboratory analysis.
7.2 Laboratory equipment.
7.3 Laboratory tests for rock mechanical property determination.
7.4 Laboratory tests for stress determination.
7.5 Index tests.
8. Mechanical properties and in situ stresses from field data.
8.1 Estimation of elastic parameters.
8.2 Estimation of strength parameters.
8.3 Estimation of in situ stresses.
9. Stability during drilling.
9.1 Unstable boreholes: Symptoms, reasons and consequences.
9.2 Rock mechanics analysis of borehole stability during drilling.
9.3 Time-delayed borehole failure.
9.4 Interaction between shale and drilling fluid.
9.5 Borehole stability analysis for well design.
9.6 Use of pressure gradients.
9.7 Beyond simple stability analysis.
10. Solids production.
10.1 Operational aspects of solids production.
10.2 Sand.
10.3 Chalk.
11. Mechanics of hydraulic fracturing.
11.1 Conditions for tensile failure.
11.2 Fracture initiation and formation breakdown.
11.3 Fracture orientation, growth and confinement.
11.4 Fracture size and shape.
11.5 Fracture closure.
11.6 Thermal effects on hydraulic fracturing.
12. Reservoir geomechanics.
12.1 Compaction and subsidence.
12.2 Modelling of reservoir compaction.
12.3 From compaction to subsidence.
12.4 Geomechanical effects on reservoir performance.
12.5 Well problems and reservoir geomechanics.
A. Rock properties.
B. SI Metric Conversion Factors.
C. Mathematical background.
D. Some formulas.
E. List of symbols.