Petroleum Production Engineering, A Computer-Assisted Approach


  • Boyun Guo, PhD, Professor, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, USA
  • William C. Lyons, Ph.D., P.E., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico, USA
  • Ali Ghalambor, PhD, Oil and Gas Engineer at Innovative Petrotech Solutions, Inc.

Petroleum Production Engineering, A Computer-Assisted Approach provides handy guidelines to designing, analyzing and optimizing petroleum production systems. Broken into four parts, this book covers the full scope of petroleum production engineering, featuring stepwise calculations and computer-based spreadsheet programs. Part one contains discussions of petroleum production engineering fundamentals, empirical models for production decline analysis, and the performance of oil and natural gas wells. Part two presents principles of designing and selecting the main components of petroleum production systems including: well tubing, separation and dehydration systems, liquid pumps, gas compressors, and pipelines for oil and gas transportation. Part three introduces artificial lift methods, including sucker rod pumping systems, gas lift technology, electrical submersible pumps and other artificial lift systems. Part four is comprised of production enhancement techniques including, identifying well problems, designing acidizing jobs, guidelines to hydraulic fracturing and job evaluation techniques, and production optimization techniques.
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Pipeline Engineering, Petroleum engineering


Book information

  • Published: February 2007
  • ISBN: 978-0-7506-8270-1

Table of Contents

PrefaceList of SymbolsList of TablesList of FiguresPart I: Petroleum Production Engineering Fundamentals Chapter 1: Petroleum Production System 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Reservoir 1.3 Well 1.4 Separator 1.5 Pump 1.6 Gas Compressor 1.7 Pipelines 1.8 Safety Control System 1.9 Unit Systems SummaryReferencesProblemsChapter 2: Properties of Oil and Natural Gas 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Properties of Oil2.2.1 Solution Gas Oil Ratio2.2.2 Density of Oil2.2.3 Formation Volume Factor of Oil2.2.4 Viscosity of Oil2.2.5 Oil Compressibility 2.3 Properties of Natural Gas2.3.1 Specific Gravity of Gas2.3.2 Gas Pseudocritical Pressure and Temperature2.3.3 Viscosity of Gas2.3.4 Gas Compressibility Factor2.3.5 Density of Gas2.3.6 Formation Volume Factor of Gas2.3.7 Gas Compressibility SummaryReferencesProblemsChapter 3: Reservoir Deliverability 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Flow Regimes3.2.1 Transient Flow3.2.2 Steady State Flow3.2.3 Pseudosteady State Flow3.2.4 Horizontal Well 3.3 Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)3.3.1 IPR for Single (Liquid) Phase Reservoirs3.3.2 IPR for Two-Phase Reservoirs3.3.3 IPR for Partial Two-Phase Oil Reservoirs 3.4 Construction of IPR Curves Using Test Points 3.5 Composite IPR of Stratified Reservoirs3.5.1 Composite IPR Models3.5.1.1 Single-Phase Liquid Flow3.5.1.2 Two-Phase Flow3.5.1.3 Partial Two-Phase Flow3.5.2 Applications 3.6 Future IPR3.6.1 Vogel’s Method3.6.2 Fetkovich’s MethodSummaryReferencesProblemsChapter 4: Wellbore Performance 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Single-Phase Liquid Flow 4.3 Multiphase Flow in Oil Wells4.3.1 Flow Regimes4.3.2 Liquid Holdup4.3.3 TPR Models4.3.3.1 Homogeneous-Flow Models4.3.3.2 Separated-Flow Models 4.4 Single-Phase Gas Flow 4.4.1 The Average Temperature and Compressibility Factor Method4.4.2 The Cullender and Smith Method 4.5 Mist Flow in Gas Wells Summary References ProblemsChapter 5: Choke Performance 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Sonic and Subsonic Flow 5.3 Single-Phase Liquid Flow 5.4 Single-Phase Gas Flow 5.4.1 Subsonic Flow5.4.2 Sonic Flow5.4.3 Temperature at Choke5.4.4 Applications 5.5 Multiphase Flow 5.5.1 Critical (Sonic) Flow. 5.5.2 Subcritical (Subsonic) Flow Summary References ProblemsChapter 6: Well Deliverability 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Nodal Analysis 6.2.1 Analysis with the Bottom Hole Node6.2.1.1 Gas Well6.2.1.2 Oil Well6.2.2 Analysis with Wellhead Node6.2.2.1 Gas Well6.2.2.2 Oil Well 6.3 Deliverability of Multilateral Well6.3.1 Gas Well6.3.2 Oil Well Summary References ProblemsChapter 7: Forecast of Well Production 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Oil Production during Transient Flow Period 7.3 Oil Production during Pseudo-Steady Flow Period7.3.1 Oil Production during Single-Phase Flow Period7.3.2 Oil Production during Two-Phase Flow Period 7.4 Gas Production during Transient Flow Period 7.5 Gas Production during Pseudo-Steady Flow Period Summary References ProblemsChapter 8: Production Decline Analysis 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Exponential Decline8.2.1 Relative Decline Rate8.2.2 Production Rate Decline 8.2.3 Cumulative Production8.2.4 Determination of Decline Rate8.2.5 Effective Decline Rate 8.3 Harmonic Decline 8.4 Hyperbolic Decline 8.5 Model Identification 8.6 Determination of Model Parameters 8.7 Illustrative Examples Summary References ProblemsPart II: Equipment Design and SelectionChapter 9: Well Tubing 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Strength of Tubing 9.3 Tubing Design9.3.1 Tension, Collapse, and Burst Design9.3.2 Buckling Prevention During Production 9.3.3 Considerations for Well Treatment and Stimulation9.3.3.1 Temperature Effect9.3.3.2 Pressure Effect9.3.3.3 Total Effect of Temperature and Pressure Summary References ProblemsChapter 10: Separation Systems 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Separation Systems10.2.1 Principles of Separation10.2.2 Types of Separators10.2.2.1 Vertical Separators Horizontal Separators10.2.2.3 Spherical Separators10.2.3 Factors Affecting Separation10.2.4 Selection of Separators10.2.4.1 Gas Capacity10.2.4.1 Gas Capacity10.2.4.2 Liquid Capacity10.2.5 Stage Separation 10.3 Dehydration Systems10.3.1 Water Content of Natural Gas Streams 10.3.2 Methods for Dehydration10.3.2.1 Dehydration by Cooling10.3.2.2 Dehydration by Adsorption10.3.2.3 Dehydration by Absorption10. Glycol Dehydration Process10. Advantages and Limitations Sizing Glycol Dehydrator Unit Summary References ProblemsChapter 11: Transportation Systems 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Pumps11.2.1 Triplex Pumps11.2.2 Duplex Pumps 11.3 Compressors11.3.1 Types of Compressors 11.3.2 Reciprocating Compressors 11.3.3 Centrifugal Compressors 11.4 Pipelines11.4.1 Flow in Pipelines11.4.1.1 Oil Flow11.4.1.2 Gas Flow11. Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow11. Weymouth Equation for Non-horizontal Flow11. Panhandle-A Equation for Horizontal Flow11. Panhandle-B Equation for Horizontal Flow Clinedinst Equation for Horizontal Flow11. Pipeline Efficiency11.4.2 Design of Pipelines11.4.2.1 Wall Thickness Design11. Design Procedure11. Design for Internal Pressure11. Design for External Pressure11. Corrosion Allowance11. Check for Hydrotest Condition11.4.2.2 Insulation Design11. Insulation Materials11. Heat Transfer Models Summary References ProblemsPart III: Artificial Lift MethodsChapter 12: Sucker Rod Pumping 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Pumping System 12.3 Polished Rod Motion 12.4 Load to the Pumping Unit12.4.1 Maximum PRL12.4.2 Minimum PRL12.4.3 Counterweights12.4.4 Peak Torque and Speed Limit12.4.5 Tapered Rod Strings 12.5 Pump Deliverability and Power Requirements12.5.1 Effective Plunger Stroke Length12.5.2 Volumetric Efficiency 12.5.3 Power Requirements 12.6 Procedure for Pumping Unit Selection 12.7 Principles of Pump Performance Analysis Summary References ProblemsChapter 13: Gas Lift 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Gas Lift System 13.3 Evaluation of Gas Lift Potential 13.4 Gas Lift Gas Compression Requirements13.4.1 Gas Flow Rate Requirement13.4.2 Output Gas Pressure Requirement13.4.2.1 Injection Pressure at Valve Depth13.4.2.2 Injection Pressure at Surface13.4.2.3 Pressure Upstream the Choke Pressure of the Gas Distribution Line 13.4.3 Compression Power Requirement13.4.3.1 Reciprocating Compressors13. Volumetric Efficiency13. Stage Compression13. Isentropic Horsepower13.4.3.2 Centrifugal Compressors 13.5 Selection of Gas Lift Valves13.5.1 Unloading Sequence13.5.2 Valve Characteristics13.5.2.1 Pressure Valve Unbalanced Bellow Valve13. Balanced Pressure Valve13. Pilot Valve13.5.2.2 Throttling Pressure Valve Fluid-Operated Valve Combination Valves 13.5.3 Valve Spacing13.5.4 Valve Selection and Testing13.5.4.1 Valve Sizing13.5.4.2 Valve Testing 13.6 Special Issues in Intermittent Flow Gas-Lift 13.7 Design of Gas Lift Installations Summary References ProblemsChapter 14: Other Artificial Lift Methods 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Electrical Submersible Pump14.2.1 Principle 14.2.2 ESP Applications 14.3 Hydraulic Piston Pumping 14.4 Progressive Cavity Pumping14.4.1 Down Hole PCP Characteristics14.4.2 Selection of Down Hole PCP 14.4.3 Selection of Drive String14.4.4 Selection of Surface Driver 14.5 Plunger Lift14.5.1 Working Principle14.5.2 Design Guideline14.5.2.1 Estimate of Production Rates with Plunger Lift14.5.2.2 GLR and Buildup Pressure Requirements14. Rules of Thumb14. Analytical Method 14.6 Hydraulic Jet Pumping14.6.1 Working Principle14.6.2 Technical Parameters14.6.3 Selection of Jet Pumps Summary References ProblemsPart IV: Production EnhancementChapter 15: Well Problem Identification 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Low Productivity15.2.1 Pressure Transient Data Analysis 15.3 Excessive Gas Production 15.4 Excessive Water Production 15.5 Liquid Loading of Gas Wells15.5.1 Turner’s Method15.5.2 Guo et al.’s Method15.5.2.1 Minimum Kinetic Energy15.5.2.2 Four-Phase Flow Model15.5.2.3 Minimum Required Gas Production Rate15.5.3 Comparison of Turner’s and Guo et al.’s Methods Summary References ProblemsChapter 16: Matrix Acidizing 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Acid/Rock Interaction16.2.1 Primary Chemical Reactions16.2.2 Dissolving Power of Acids16.2.3 Reaction Kinetics 16.3 Sandstone Acidizing Design16.3.1 Selection of Acid16.3.2 Acid Volume Requirement16.3.3 Acid Injection Rate16.3.4 Acid Injection Pressure 16.4 Carbonate Acidizing Design16.4.1 Selection of Acid16.4.2 Acidizing Parameters Summary References ProblemsChapter 17: Hydraulic Fracturing 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Formation Fracturing Pressure 17.3 Fracture Geometry17.3.1 Radial Fracture Model17.3.2 The KGD Model17.3.3 The PKN model17.3.4 Three-Dimensional and Pseudo-3D Models 17.4 Productivity of Fractured Wells 17.5 Hydraulic Fracturing Design17.5.1 Selection of Fracturing Fluid17.5.2 Selection of Proppant17.5.3 The Maximum Treatment Pressure17.5.4 Selection of Fracture Model17.5.5 Selection of Treatment Size17.5.6 Production Forecast and NPV Analyses17.6 Post-frac Evaluation 17.6.1 Pressure Matching17.6.2 Pressure Build-Up Test Analysis17.6.3 Other Evaluation Techniques Summary References ProblemsChapter 18: Production Optimization 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Naturally Flowing Well 18.3 Gas-Lifted Well 18.4 Sucker Rod-Pumped Well 18.5 Separator 18.6 Pipeline Network18.6.1 Pipelines in Series18.6.2 Pipelines in Parallel18.6.3 Looped Pipelines 18.7 Gas Lift Facility 18.8 Oil and Gas Production Fields18.8.1 Types of Flow Networks18.8.2 Optimization Approaches18.8.2.1 Simulation Approach18.8.2.2 Optimization Approach18.8.3 Procedure for Production Optimization18.8.4 Production Optimization Software18.8.4.1 ReO18.8.4.2 HYSYS18.8.4.3 FAST Piper18.9 Discounted Revenue Summary References ProblemsAppendix A: Unit Conversion FactorsAppendix B: The Minimum Performance Properties of API Tubing