Particles at Fluid Interfaces and Membranes
Attachment of Colloid Particles and Proteins to Interfaces and Formation of Two-Dimensional ArraysEdited by
- P. Kralchevsky
- K. Nagayama
In the small world of micrometer to nanometer scale many natural and industrial processes include attachment of colloid particles (solid spheres, liquid droplets, gas bubbles or protein macromolecules) to fluid interfaces and their confinement in liquid films. This may lead to the appearance of lateral interactions between particles at interfaces, or between inclusions in phospholipid membranes, followed eventually by the formation of two-dimensional ordered arrays. The book is devoted to the description of such processes, their consecutive stages, and to the investigation of the underlying physico-chemical mechanisms.
The first six chapters give a concise but informative introduction to the basic knowledge in surface and colloid science, which includes both traditional concepts and some recent results. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to the basic theory of capillarity, kinetics of surfactant adsorption, shapes of axisymmetric fluid interfaces, contact angles and line tension. Chapters 3 and 4 present a generalization of the theory of capillarity to the case, in which the variation of the interfacial (membrane) curvature contributes to the total energy of the system. The generalized Laplace equation is applied to determine the configurations of free and adherent biological cells. Chapters 5 and 6 are focused on the role of thin liquid films and hydrodynamic factors in the attachment of solid and fluid particles to an interface. Surface forces of various physical nature are presented and their relative importance is discussed. Hydrodynamic interactions of a colloidal particle with an interface (or another particle) are also considered.Chapters 7 to 10 are devoted to the theoretical foundation of various kinds of capillary forces. When two particles are attached to the same interface (membrane), capillary interactions, mediated by the interface or membrane, appear between them. Two major kinds of capillary interactions are described: (i) capillary immersion force related to the surface wettability (Chapter 7), (ii) capillary flotation force originating from interfacial deformations due to particle weight (Chapter 8). Special attention is paid to the theory of capillary immersion forces between particles entrapped in spherical liquid films (Chapter 9). A generalization of the theory of immersion forces allows one to describe membrane-mediated interactions between protein inclusions into a lipid bilayer (Chapter 10).
Chapter 11 is devoted to the theory of the capillary bridges and the capillary-bridge forces, whose importance has been recognized in phenomena like consolidation of granules and soils, wetting of powders, capillary condensation, long-range hydrophobic attraction, etc. The nucleation of capillary bridges is also examined.
Chapter 12 considers solid particles, which have an irregular wetting perimeter upon attachment to a fluid interface. The undulated contact line induces interfacial deformations, which engender a special lateral capillary force between the particles. The latter contributes to the dilatational and shear elastic moduli of particulate adsorption monolayers.
Chapter 13 describes how lateral capillary forces, facilitated by convective flows and some specific and non-specific interactions, can lead to the aggregation and ordering of various particles at fluid interfaces or in thin liquid films. Recent results on fabricating two-dimensional (2D) arrays from micrometer and sub-micrometer latex particles, as well as 2D crystals from proteins and protein complexes, are reviewed.
Chapter 14 presents applied aspects of the particle-surface interaction in antifoaming and defoaming. The mechanisms of antifoaming action involve as a necessary step the entering of an antifoam particle at the air-water interface. The considered mechanisms indicate the factors for control of foaminess.
For research chemists and biochemists working in the field of natural product chemistry, various separation and other industrial processes, physical chemistry, protein engineering, cell biology, petroleum industry, etc.
Studies in Interface Science
Hardbound, 668 Pages
Published: January 2001
- Preface. Chapter 1. Planar Fluid Interfaces. Mechanical properties of fluid interfaces. Thermodynamical properties of planar fluid interfaces. Kinetics of surfactant adsorption. Summary. References. Chapter 2. Interfaces of Moderate Curvature: Theory of Capillarity. The Laplace equation of capillarity. Axisymmetric fluid interfaces. Force balance at a three-phase-contact line. Summary. References. Chapter 3. Surface Bending Moment and Curvature Elastic Moduli. Basic thermodynamic equations for curved interfaces. Thermodynamics of spherical interfaces. Relations with the molecular theory and the experiment. Summary. References. Chapter 4. General Curved Interfaces and Biomembranes. Theoretical approaches for description of curved interfaces. Mechanical approach to arbitrarily curved interfaces. Connection between the mechanical and thermodynamical approaches. Axisymmetric shapes of biological cells. Micromechanical expressions for the surface properties. Summary. References. Chapter 5. Liquid Films and Interactions Between Particle and Surface. Mechanical balances and thermodynamic relationships. Interactions in thin liquid films. Summary. References. Chapter 6. Particles at Interfaces: Deformations and Hydrodynamic Interactions. Deformation of fluid particles approaching an interface. Hydrodynamic interactions. Detachment of oil drops from a solid surface. Summary. References. Chapter 7. Lateral Capillary Forces Between Partially Immersed Bodies. Physical origin of the lateral capillary forces. Shape of the capillary meniscus around two axisymmetric bodies. Energy approach to the lateral capillary interactions. Force approach to the lateral capillary interactions. Summary. References. Chapter 8. Lateral Capillary Forces Between Floating Particles. Interaction between two floating particles. Particle-wall interaction: capillary image forces. Summary. References. Chapter 9. Capillary Forces Between Particles Bound to a Spherical Interface. Origin of the "capillary charge" in the case of spherical interface. Interfacial shape around inclusions in a spherical film. Calculation of the lateral capillary force. Summary. References. Chapter 10. Mechanics of Lipid Membranes and Interaction Between Inclusions. Deformations in a lipid membrane due to the presence of inclusions. "Sandwich" model of a lipid bilayer. Description of membrane deformations caused by inclusions. Lateral interaction between two identical inclusions. Numerical results for membrane proteins. Summary. References. Chapter 11. Capillary Bridges and Capillary Bridge Forces. Role of the capillary bridges in various processes and phenomena. Definition and magnitude of the capillary bridge force. Geometrical and physical properties of capillary bridges. Nucleation of capillary bridges. Summary. References. Chapter 12. Capillary Forces Between Particles of Irregular Contact Line. Surface corrugations and interaction between two particles. Elastic properties of particulate adsorption monolayers. Summary. References. Chapter 13. Two-Dimensional Crystallization of Particulates and Proteins. Methods for obtaining 2D arrays from microscopic particles. 2D crystallization of proteins on the surface of mercury. Dynamics of 2D crystallization in evaporating liquid films. Liquid substrates for 2D array formation. Size separation of colloidal particles during 2D crystallization. Methods for obtaining large 2D-crystalline coatings. 2D crystallization of particles in free foam films. Application of 2D arrays from colloid particles and proteins. Summary. References. Chapter 14. Effect of Oil Drops and Particulates on the Stability of Foams. Foam-breaking action of microscopic particles. Mechanisms of foam-breaking action of oil drops and particles. Stability of asymmetric films: the key for control of foaminess. Summary and conclusions. References. Appendix 1A: Equivalence of the two forms of the Gibbs adsorption equation. Appendix 8A: Derivation of equation (8.31). Appendix 10A: Connections between two models of lipid membranes. Index. Notation.