Preface (C. Freeman). Introductory Note (J. Marcum). Is Western Europe Losing the Technological Race? (P. Patel and K. Pavitt). A Technology Gap Approach to Why Growth Rates Differ (J. Fagerberg). The Impact of Technological Innovation on International Trade Patterns: The Evidence Reconsidered (L. Soete). Patents and the Measurement of Technological Change: A Survey of the Literature (B.L. Basberg). Patents as Indicators of Corporate Technological Strength (F. Narin, E. Noma and R. Perry). Patents and Inventors: An Empirical Study (G. Sirilli). A Study of Innovation in the Pesticide Industry: Analysis of the Innovation Record of an Industrial Sector (B. Achilladelis, A. Schwarzkopf and M. Cines). Assessing Basic Research: Reappraisal and Update of an Evaluation of Four Radio Astronomy Observatories (J. Irvine, B.R. Martin, J. Abraham and T. Peacock). Indices.