Nuclear Analytical Techniques in MedicineEdited By
- R. Cesareo, Università degli Studi di Roma ``La Sapienza'', Rome, Italy
This book will acquaint the interested physician or physicist with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical techniques based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in haematology, forensic medicine and environmental science.Analysis of the elemental composition of human tissues and cells and in particular trace elements has attracted increasing interest over the last few years, due to the increase in knowledge on the role of some elements and the possible correlations between abnormal concentrations of one or more trace elements and pathological conditions. This has stimulated the development of analytical techniques which allow the detection of trace elements simultaneously and at very low concentrations. Particularly in methods involving nuclear principles or nuclear apparatus, many techniques have been largely and successfully developed in recent years and applied in the medical field. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.
Techniques and Instrumentation in Analytical Chemistry
Published: January 1988
- 1. Trace elements in biological samples (H.J.M. Bowen). Functions of trace elements. Contamination and loss before analysis. Methods of analysis and their reliability. Composition of selected tissues. Abnormal concentrations of elements in human tissues. References. 2. Photon induced X-ray emission (R. Cesareo). Atomic structure. Physical principles of X-ray fluorescence. Theoretical background for XRF-analysis. Theoretical minimum detection limits for XRF-analysis. Experimental arrangement. Biomedical applications. References. 3. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) (B. Gonsior). Physical principles of PIXE. Principles of the use of PIXE for trace element analysis. Experimental arrangement. Biomedical applications. References. 4. Analysis of biological samples by X-ray attenuation measurements (R. Cesareo). Attenuation of radiation. Excitation sources. Applications of attenuation measurements in medicine. References. 5. Scattering of low energy X- or gamma monoenergetic radiation (G.E. Gigante). Incoherent (Compton) and coherent scattering of low energy X- and gamma monochromatic radiation. The inherent sources of error in photon scattering techniques. Compton scattering techniques. The coherent (Rayleigh) to Compton scattering ratio technique (R/C.T.). References. 6. ``In vitro'' activation analysis (N. Molho). Nuclear reactions. Nuclear decay. Basic equations. Instrumentation for activation analysis. Detectors. Data analysis. Absolute measurements and comparators. Major parameters affecting sensitivity. Precision and accuracy. Sampling. Radiochemistry. Applications of activation analysis to biomedical samples. References. 7. In vivo nuclear activation analysis (K.V. Ettinger). Principal techniques of IVNAA. Flux distributions in the human body for fast neutron irradiations. Neutron sources for IVNAA. The use of pulsed beams. Detection facilities. Comments on some applications of IVNAA. Concluding remarks. Appendix. Descriptions of systems in use. References. Author Index. Subject Index.