Noise Control in Industry
A Practical GuideBy
- Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, United States Agency for International Development
Damage from noise exposure of sufficient intensity and duration is well established and hearing loss may be temporary or permanent. Fortunately, noise exposure can be controlled and technology exists to reduce the hazards. Aside from employer/employee concern with the inherent hazards of noise, added attention has been brought to focus on the subject through regulatory requirements. Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) every employer is legally responsible for providing a workplace free of hazards such as excessive noise. It has been estimated that 14 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise. This book is presented as an overview summary for employers, workers, and supervisors interested in workplace noise and its control. We believe that in order to understand and control noise it is not necessary to be highly technical. Noise problems can quite often be solved by the people who are directly affected. Presented is an overview of noise, the regulations concerning its control, an explanation of specific principles, and a discussion of some particular techniques.
Employers, workers, and supervisors interested in workplace noise and its control.
Hardbound, 203 Pages
Published: December 1996
Imprint: William Andrew
- 1. Introduction to Sound and Noise Effects of Noise Human Exposure and Response Physics of Sound Relationship of Sound Pressure, Sound Power and Sound Intensity Frequency of Sound Duration of Sound Nomenclature References2. Industrial Noise Control-An Overview Low-Cost Solutions for Noise Control Master Plans Sound Control Principles Example Material Selection References3. Noise Control Regulations The Noise Control Act as Amended by the Quiet Communities Act State Environmental Noise Programs Occupational Safety and Health Act 1974 OSHA Proposal to Amend Noise Standard Hearing Conservation Program Rules State Workman's Compensation Laws Abbreviations References Note Added in Proof: OSHA Regulatory Changes4. Noise Analysis Microphone Designs Sound Fields Microphones and the Acoustical Environment Microphone Accessories Frequency Weighting Sound Level Meters Calibration Integrating Sound Level Meters Noise Dosimeters Frequency Analyzers Amplitude Distribution Analyzers Related Vibration Measurements References5. Vibration Analysis and Instrumentation Instrumentation Vibration Meters Vibration Analyzers Vibration Signature Analysis Data at Startup Vibration Severity Measured in Velocity Strobe Light Analysis The ""Big Four"" Sources of Vibration Conclusion Reference Bibliography6. Measurement Techniques for Sound Level Meters Noise Level and Frequency The Sound Level Meter Weighting Precision Calibration Human Response Defining the Measurement Problem Determination of Percent-Exceeded Noise Levels Determination of Equivalent Sound Level Long-Term Average OSHA Criteria References7. Audiometry Characteristics of Sound The Human Ear: Physiology Hearing Disorders Assessment of Hearing Impairment Automatic Recording Audiometers The Audiogram Audiometric Booths Audiometer Calibration Abbreviations References Bibliography8. Analysis of Valve and Piping Noise Cavitation Cavitation in Liquid Systems Water Hammer Mechanical Vibration Fluid Noise Control Valve Noise Prediction: Compressible Fluids Noise Attenuation Cover Materials Double Reducing Station Valve/Piping Design Considerations9. Fan Noise Control Types of Fans Noise Source Relocation of Equipment Fan Modification Isolators Mufflers Fan Location Balancing Maintenance Summary and Conclusions References Bibliography Glossary Index