Nitrogen Oxides Control Technology Fact Book


  • Lesley Sloss, International Energy Agency, Clean Coal Centre, UK

Describes international technologies for controlling NOx emissions, primarily from coal combustion. Over 115 control systems are documented with, as available, system descriptions, process applications, pollution reduction capability, system diagram, supplier/manufacturer.
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Primarily facilities which utilize coal combustion.


Book information

  • Published: December 1992
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1294-3

Table of Contents

Part I: NOx Emissions from Coal Combustion1. Introduction2. Nitrogen Chemistry 2.1 Nitrogen Oxides 2.2 Nitrification and Denitrification in Soils 2.3 Reactions of NOx with Other Pollutants3. Effects of Nitrogen Oxides 3.1 Global Effects 3.2 Regional Effects 3.3 Human Health 3.4 Summary4. Emission Sources and Concentrations 4.1 Natural Emissions 4.2 Emissions Due to Human Activities 4.3 Global Background Concentrations 4.4 Summary5. Transport and Deposition of NOx 5.1 Short Range - Plumes 5.2 Long Range6. Region Emissions, Concentrations and Legislation7. Impacts of Legislation and Future NOx Emissions 7.1 Future Emissions 7.2 Future Concentrations 7.3 Possible Detrimental Effects of Controls 7.4 Possible Environmental Improvements8. Conclusions9. ReferencesPart II: NOx Control Technologies for Coal Combustion1. Introduction2. NOx Formation 2.1 Formation of Nitrous Oxide 2.2 Techniques for Reducing NOx Formation3. Regulations on NOx Emissions 3.1 International Agreements and Standards 3.2 National Standards4. Control of NOx Emissions Through Combustion Measures 4.1 General Approach 4.2 Influence of Coal Properties on NOx Control 4.3 Operational Measures 4.4 Design Measures 4.5 Potential Impacts of Combustion Modifications 4.6 Modifications to Existing Boilers 4.7 Dry Bottom Boilers, Pulverized Fuel 4.8 Wet Bottom Boilers or Slag Tap Furnaces 4.9 Stoker Firing5. Selective Catalytic Reduction 5.1 Process Description 5.2 Ammonia Supply 5.3 Catalyst 5.4 Flue Gas Section 5.5 Experience6. Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction 6.1 Process Description 6.2 Chemicals Used as a Reducing Agent 6.3 Design of a Selective Non-Catalytic Plant 6.4 Experience7. Combined SOx/NOx Processes 7.1 Activated Carbon 7.2 Catalytic Absorption Process 7.3 Irradiation Process 7.4 Other Processes8. Advanced Combustion Technologies 8.1 Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion 8.2 Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion 8.3 Gasification 8.4 Slagging Combusters9. Costs of NOx Control 9.1 Costs for Combustion Measures 9.2 Costs for Flue Gas Treatment 9.3 Comparison of Costs for Different NOx Reduction Measures10. Overview of Activities to Reduce NOx from Coal-Fired Plants in Different Countries11. Summary12. Conclusions