This volume summarises and reviews the enormous progress made over the past two decades in solid acids and bases, with emphasis on fundamental aspects and chemical principles. In recent years many new kinds of solid acids and bases have been found and synthesized. The surface properties (in particular, acidic and basic properties) and the structures of the new solids have been clarified by newly developed measurement methods using modern instruments and techniques. The characterized solid acids and bases have been applied as catalysts for diversified reactions, many good correlations being obtained between the acid-base properties and the catalytic activities or selectivities. Recently, acid-base bifunctional catalysis on solid surfaces is becoming a more and more important and intriguing field of study.It has been recognized that the acidic and basic properties of catalysts and catalyst supports play an important role in oxidation, reduction, hydrogenation, hydrocracking, etc. The effect of the preparation method and the pretreatment conditions of solid acids and bases on the acidic and basic properties, the nature of acidic and basic sites and the mechanism regarding the generation of acidity and basicity have been elucidated experimentally and theoretically. On the basis of the accumulated knowledge of solid acids and bases, it is now possible to design and develop highly active and selective solid acid and base catalysts for particular reactions. The chemistry of solid acids and bases is now being related to and utilized in numerous areas including adsorbents, sensors, cosmetics, fuel cells, sensitized pressed papers, and others. The information presented in this book will therefore be of interest to a wide-ranging readership.