Implications for Normal and Pathological CNS Function
- A.C.H. Yu, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
- L. Hertz, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
- M.D. Norenberg, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA
- E. Syková, Institute of Physiological Regulations, Czechoslovak Academy of Science, Prague, Czechoslovakia
- S.G. Waxman, Yale University, New haven, CT, USA
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Neurons and astrocytes have an intimate anatomic and functional realtionship and are heavily dependent on each other. This intensive relationship is virtually important not only in normal CNS function, but also in disease states. Research to better define and underatand this relationship will lay the foundation for rational new therapies for disorders of the CNS.
The chapters in this volume have been written by scientists and physicians from around the world. To have optimum diversity of approach, the volume discusses basic research as well as clinical experience regarding the interactions of neurons and astrocytes in both normal and pathological conditions.
- Published: December 1992
- Imprint: ELSEVIER
- ISBN: 978-0-444-89537-0
Table of Contents1. A century of neuronal and neuroglial interactions, and their pathological implications; an overview. 2. The brain as a chemical machine. Ion Homeostasis 3. Intracellular pH regulation in mammalian astrocytes. 4. Role of astrocytes in ionic and volume homeostasis in spinal cord during development and injury. 5. Functional consequences of astrocytic swelling. 6. Swelling of C6 glioma cells and astrocytes from glutamate, high K+concentrations, or acidosis. 7. Pharmacological regulation of astrocytic ion channels: Implications for the treatment of seizure disorders. 8. The expression of sodium channels in astrocytes in situ and in vitro. 9. Ion involvement in memory formation: the potential role of astrocytes. Calcium, Signalling and Gene Expression 10. Do astrocytes process informations? 11. Distribution of calcium in ischemic brain of gerbils. 12. Signalling by extracellular ATP: physiological and pathological considerations in neuronal-astrocytic interactions. 13. The role of polyphosphoinositides in agonist-evoked release of vasoactive factors from astrocytes. 14. Isolation of transcriptionally regulated sequences associated with neuronal and non-neuronal cell interactions. 15. Early response gene induction in astrocytes as a mechanism for encoding and integrating neuronal signals. 16. c-Fos induction occurs in cultured cortical neurons and astrocytes via multiple signalling pathways Glutamate: Metabolism and Toxicity 17. Regulatory role of astrocytes for neuronal biosynthesis and homeostasis of glutamate and GABA. 18. Nitrogen metabolism: neuronal-astroglial relationships. 19. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical observations on the localization, metabolism, and transport of glutamate in normal and ischemic brain tissue. 20. Release of exogenous and endogenous neurotransmitter amino acids from cultured astrocytes. 21. Glutamate as an energy substrate for neuronal-astrocytic interactions. 22. Hepatic encephalopathy: a disorder in glial-neuronal communication. 23. Kainic acid induced excitotoxicity in neurons and glial cells Catecholamines, Peptides and Acetylcholine 24. Effects of monoamine transmitters on neurons and astrocytes: correlation between energy metabolism and intracellular messengers. 25. Cellular localization of responses to catecholamines in brain tissue. 26. Neuronal and astroglial monoamines oxidase: Pharmacological implications of specific MAO-B inhibitors. 27. Peptidergic and cholinergic receptors on cultured astrocytes of different regions of the rat CNS Gangliosides 28. Gangliosides and neuronal-astrocytic interactions. 29. An in vitro study on increased neuronal and astrocytic vulnerability to neurotoxic injury after in utero cocaine exposure: the reversal effects of GM 1 treatment Astrogliosis, Injury and Ischemia 30. Astrocytic response to injury. 31. CNS glial scar tissue: a source of molecules which inhibit central neurite outgrowth. 32. Regional heterogeneity of reactive astrocytosis following cerebral ischemia Aging and Degenerative Diseases 33. Role of astrocytes in aging: late passage primary mouse brain astrocytes and C-6 glial cells as model. 34. Association between cell-mediated demyelination and astrocyte stimulation. 35. Oligodendroglial and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in multisystem atrophy. 36. Astrocytes and Parkinson's disease. 37. PrPSc causes nerve cell death and stimulates astrocyte proliferation: a paradox. 38. The involvement of astrocytes and a brain acute phase response in amyloid deposition on Alzheimer's disease. 39. S-100B and serotonin: a possible astrocytic-neuronal link to neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease. 40. Astrocytic gliosis in the amygdala in Down's syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. Subject index.