Netter

Netter's Atlas of Human Embryology

Updated Edition

Paperback, 288 Pages

Published: June 2012

Imprint: Saunders

ISBN: 978-1-4557-3977-6

Contents

  • Chapter 1

    An Overview of Developmental Events, Processes, and Abnormalities . 1

    The First and Second Weeks. 2

    The Embryonic Period

    The Early Embryonic Period. 3

    The Late Embryonic Period. 4

    The Fetal Period. 5

    Histological Concepts

    Samples of Epithelia and Connective Tissue . 6

    Skin and Embryonic Connective Tissue. 7

    Induction. 8

    Apoptosis . 9

    Segmentation and Early Pattern Formation

    Genetic Determination of Embryonic Axes and Segments. 10

    Segmentation and Segment Fates. 11

    Cell Adhesion and Cell Migration. 12

    Cell Differentiation and Cell Fates . 13

    Growth Factors. 14

    Classification of Abnormal Processes . 15

    Classification of Multiple Anomalies. 16

    Normal Versus Major Versus Minor Malformations . 17

    Marfan Syndrome. 18

    Apert and De Lange Syndromes. 19

    Examples of Deformations . 20

    Example of a Deformation Sequence . 21

    Drug-Induced Embryopathies. 22

    Terminology. 23

    Chapter 2

    Early Embryonic Development and the Placenta . 27

    Adult Uterus, Ovaries, and Uterine Tubes . 28

    Ovary, Ova, and Follicle Development . 29

    The Menstrual Cycle and Pregnancy. 30

    The First Week: .

    Ovulation, Fertilization and Migration Down the Uterine Tube. 31

    Ectopic Pregnancy. 32

    Tubal Pregnancy. 33

    Interstitial, Abdominal, and Ovarian Pregnancy. 34

    The Second Week: .

    Implantation and Extraembryonic Membrane Formation. 35

    The Third Week: Gastrulation. 36

    Events Related to Gastrulation:.

    Neurulation and Early Placenta and Coelom Development . 37

    The Fourth Week: Folding of the Gastrula . 38

    The Vertebrate Body Plan. 39

    Formation of the Placenta. 40

    The Endometrium and Fetal Membranes. 41

    Placental Structure . 42

    External Placental Structure; Placental Membrane. 43

    Placental Variations . 44

    Placenta Previa. 45

    Summary of Ectodermal Derivatives. 46

    Summary of Endodermal Derivatives . 47

    Summary of Mesodermal Derivatives. 48

    Terminology. 49

    Chapter 3

    The Nervous System. 51

    Formation of the Neural Plate. 52

    Neurulation. 53

    Neural Tube and Neural Crest . 54

    Neural Tube Defects

    Defects of the Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column. 55

    Defects of the Brain and Skull. 56

    Neuron Development. 57

    Development of the Cellular Sheath of Axons . 58

    Development of the Spinal Cord Layers. 59

    Development of the Spinal Cord. 60

    Peripheral Nervous System

    Development of the Peripheral Nervous System. 61

    Somatic Versus Splanchnic Nerves . 62

    Growth of the Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column. 63

    Embryonic Dermatomes. 64

    Adult Dermatomes . 65

    Development of the Brain

    Early Brain Development. 66

    Further Development of Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain. 67

    Development of Major Brain Structures. 68

    Growth of the Cerebral Hemispheres. 69

    Derivatives of the Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain . 70

    Development of the Forebrain

    Forebrain Wall and Ventricles. 71

    Relationship Between Telencephalon and Diencephalon . 72

    Cross Sections of the Midbrain and Hindbrain. 73

    Production of Cerebrospinal Fluid . 74

    Development of Motor Nuclei in the Brainstem. 75

    Segmentation of the Hindbrain. 76

    Development of the Pituitary Gland. 77

    Development of the Ventricles. 78

    Congenital Ventricular Defects. 79

    Terminology. 80

    Chapter 4

    The Cardiovascular System. 83

    Early Vascular Systems. 84

    Vein Development

    Early Development of the Cardinal Systems . 85

    Transformation to the Postnatal Pattern. 86

    Vein Anomalies. 87

    Aortic Arch Arteries . 88

    Artery Anomalies

    Aortic Arch Anomalies. 89

    Anomalous Origins of the Pulmonary Arteries. 90

    Intersegmental Arteries and Coarctation of the Aorta. 91

    Summary of Embryonic Blood Vessel Derivatives. 92

    Formation of Blood Vessels. 93

    Formation of the Heart Tube

    Formation of the Left and Right Heart Tubes. 94

    Formation of a Single Heart Tube. 95

    Chambers of the Heart Tube. 96

    Bending of the Heart Tube. 97

    Partitioning of the Heart Tube. 98

    Atrial Separation. 99

    Spiral (Aorticopulmonary) Septum . 100

    Completion of the Spiral (Aorticopulmonary) Septum. 101

    Ventricular Separation and Bulbus Cordis. 102

    Adult Derivatives of the Heart Tube Chambers. 103

    Fetal Circulation. 104

    Transition to Postnatal Circulation . 105

    Congenital Heart Defect Concepts. 106

    Ventricular Septal Defects. 107

    Atrial Septal Defects. 108

    Spiral Septum Defects. 109

    Patent Ductus Arteriosus. 110

    Terminology. 111

    Chapter 5

    The Respiratory System. 113

    Early Primordia. 114

    Formation of the Pleural Cavities . 115

    The Relationship Between Lungs and Pleural Cavities . 116

    Visceral and Parietal Pleura . 117

    Development of the Diaphragm. 118

    Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. 119

    Airway Branching

    The Airway at 4 to 7 Weeks. 120

    The Airway at 7 to 10 Weeks. 121

    Development of Bronchioles and Alveoli . 122

    Bronchial Epithelium Maturation . 123

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Airway. 124

    Airway Branching Anomalies. 125

    Bronchopulmonary Sequestration. 126

    Palate Formation in the Upper Airway. 127

    The Newborn Upper Airway. 128

    Terminology. 129

    Chapter 6

    The Gastrointestinal System and Abdominal Wall . 131

    Early Primordia. 132

    Formation of the Gut Tube and Mesenteries. 133

    Foregut, Midgut, and Hindgut. 134

    Abdominal Veins . 135

    Foregut and Midgut Rotations. 136

    Meckel’s Diverticulum . 137

    Lesser Peritoneal Sac. 138

    Introduction to the Retroperitoneal Concept. 139

    Midgut Loop. 140

    Abdominal Ligaments. 141

    Abdominal Foregut Organ Development . 142

    Development of Pancreatic Acini and Islets. 143

    Congenital Pancreatic Anomalies. 144

    Development of the Hindgut . 145

    Congenital Anomalies

    Duplication, Atresia, and Situs Inversus. 146

    Megacolon (Hirschsprung’s Disease). 147

    Summary of Gut Organization . 148

    Development of the Abdominal Wall. 149

    Umbilical Hernia . 150

    The Inguinal Region. 151

    Anterior Testis Descent. 152

    The Adult Inguinal Region . 153

    Anomalies of the Processus Vaginalis. 154

    Terminology. 155

    Chapter 7

    The Urogenital System. 157

    Early Primordia. 158

    Division of the Cloaca . 159

    Congenital Cloacal Anomalies . 160

    Pronephros, Mesonephros, and Metanephros. 161

    Development of the Metanephros. 162

    Ascent and Rotation of the Metanephric Kidneys. 163

    Kidney Rotation and Migration Anomalies

    Kidney Rotation Anomalies and Renal Fusion. 164

    Kidney Migration Anomalies and Blood Vessel Formation . 165

    Hypoplasia. 166

    Ureteric Bud Duplication. 167

    Ectopic Ureters. 168

    Bladder Anomalies. 169

    Allantois/Urachus Anomalies . 170

    Primordia of the Genital System. 171

    8-Week Undifferentiated (Indifferent) Stage . 172

    Anterior View of the Derivatives. 173

    Paramesonephric Duct Anomalies . 174

    Homologues of the External Genital Organs. 175

    Hypospadias and Epispadias. 176

    Gonadal Differentiation . 177

    Testis, Epididymis, and Ductus Deferens . 178

    Descent of Testis. 179

    Ova and Follicles. 180

    Summary of Urogenital Primordia and Derivatives. 181

    Summary of Genital Primordia and Derivatives . 182

    Terminology. 183

    Chapter 8

    The Musculoskeletal System. 185

    Myotomes, Dermatomes, and Sclerotomes. 186

    Muscle and Vertebral Column Segmentation . 187

    Mesenchymal Primordia at 5 and 6 Weeks . 188

    Ossification of the Vertebral Column. 189

    Development of the Atlas, Axis, Ribs, and Sternum. 190

    Bone Cells and Bone Deposition . 191

    Histology of Bone. 192

    Membrane Bone and Skull Development. 193

    Bone Development in Mesenchyme. 194

    Osteon Formation. 195

    Compact Bone Development and Remodeling. 196

    Endochondral Ossification in a Long Bone. 197

    Epiphyseal Growth Plate

    Epiphyseal Growth Plate. 198

    Peripheral Cartilage Function in the Epiphysis. 199

    Structure and Function of the Growth Plate. 200

    Pathophysiology of the Growth Plate. 201

    Ossification in the Newborn Skeleton. 202

    Joint Development . 203

    Muscular System: Primordia. 204

    Segmentation and Division of Myotomes. 205

    Epimere, Hypomere, and Muscle Groups. 206

    Development and Organization of Limb Buds. 207

    Rotation of the Limbs. 208

    Limb Rotation and Dermatomes. 209

    Embryonic Plan of the Brachial Plexus. 210

    Divisions of the Lumbosacral Plexus. 211

    Developing Skeletal Muscles . 212

    Terminology. 213

    Chapter 9

    Head and Neck. 215

    Ectoderm, Endoderm, and Mesoderm. 216

    Pharyngeal (Branchial) Arches . 217

    Ventral and Midsagittal Views . 218

    Fate of the Pharyngeal Pouches . 219

    Midsagittal View of the Pharynx. 220

    Fate of the Pharyngeal Grooves . 221

    Pharyngeal Groove and Pouch Anomalies. 222

    Pharyngeal Arch Nerves. 223

    Sensory Innervation Territories. 224

    Development of Pharyngeal Arch Muscles

    Early Development of Pharyngeal Arch Muscles. 225

    Later Development of Pharyngeal Arch Muscles. 226

    Pharyngeal Arch Cartilages. 227

    Ossification of the Skull . 228

    Premature Suture Closure. 230

    Cervical Ossification. 231

    Torticollis . 232

    Cervical Plexus. 233

    Orbit. 234

    Ear Development . 235

    Adult Ear Organization. 236

    Summary of Ear Development . 237

    Cranial Nerve Primordia. 238

    Cranial Nerve Neuron Components. 239

    Parasympathetic Innervation and Unique Nerves. 240

    Development of the Face

    Development of the Face: 3 to 4 Weeks. 241

    Development of the Face: 4 to 6 Weeks. 242

    Development of the Face: 6 to 10 Weeks. 243

    Palate Formation

    Palate Formation. 244

    Interior View of Palate Formation; Roof of Oral Cavity. 245

    Congenital Anomalies of the Oral Cavity. 246

    Floor of the Oral Cavity . 247

    Developmental Coronal Sections . 248

    Tooth Structure and Development . 249

    Dental Eruption. 250

    Terminology. 251

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