Table of ContentsList of contributors. Foreword. I. Molecular causes of chronic pain. 1. Sodium channels and the molecular pathophysiology of pain (T.R. Cummins, S.D. Dib-Hajj, J.A. Black and S.G. Waxman, West Haven, CT, USA). 2. Chemical mediators of pain due to tissue damage and ischemia (S.P. Eckert, S.P. Cook and E.W. McCleskey, Portland OR, USA). Nociceptor excitation by thermal sensitization - a hypothesis (P.W. Reeh and G. Pethö Erlangen, Germany and Pecs, Hungary). 4. Protein kinase subtypes involved in injury - induced nociception (A.B. Malmberg, Palo Alto, CA, USA). II. Synaptic mechanisms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. 5. Synaptic transmission and plasticity in the superficial dorsal horn (K.A. Moore, H. Baba and C.J. Woolf, Charleston, MA, USA). 6. Synaptic mechanisms of hyperalgesia (J. Sandkühler, J. Benrath, C. Brechtel, R. Ruscheweyh and B. Heinke, Heidelberg, Germany). 7. Silent glutamatergic synapses and long-term facilitation in spinal dorsal horn neurons (M. Zhuo, St. Louis, MO, USA). 8. Spinal dorsal horn synaptic plasticity: involvement of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (G. Gerber, D.-H. Youn, C.H. Hsu and RandiĆ Ames, IA, USA). III. Long-term changes in the spinal nociceptive system. 9. The functional anatomy of lamina I and its role in post-stroke central pain (A.D. Graig, Phoenix, AZ, USA). 10. Long-term potentiation in single wide dynamic range neurons induced by noxious stimulation in intact and spinalized rats (F. Svendsen, K. Hole and A. Tølsen Bergen,Norway). 11. The role of spinal nitric oxide in the control of spontaneous pain following nociceptive input (U. Hoheisel and S. Mense, Heidelberg, Germany). 12. The role of high threshold calcium channels in spinal neuron hyperexcitability induced by knee inflammation (H.-G. Schaible, J. Nebe, V. Neugebauer, A. Ebersberger and H. Vanegas, Jena, Germany). 13. Neuroplasticity in the spinal cord of monoarthritic rats: from metabolic changes to the detection of interleukin-6 using mRNA differential display (A. Berthele, J. Schadrack, J.M. Casto-Lopes, B. Conrad, W. Zieglgänsberger, and T.R. Tölle, Munich, Germany and Porto, Portugal). 14. Central roles of nociceptin/orphanin FQ and nocistatin: allodynia as a model of neural plasticity (S. Ito, E. Okuda-Ashitaka, T. Imanishi and T. Minami, Osaka, Japan). 15. The biological role of galanin in normal and neuropathic states (B.J. Kerr, D. Wynick, S.W.N. Thompson and S.B. McMahon (London and Bristol, UK). 16. Plasticity in descending pain modulatory systems (A. Pertovaara, Turku, Finland). IV. Thalamic contribution to chronic pain. 17. Role of thalamus in pain (J.O. Dostrovsky, Toronto, ON, Canada). 18. Plasticity of pain-related neuronal activity in the human thalamus (F.A. Lenz, J.-I. Lee, I.M. Garonzik, L.H. Rowland, P.M. Dougherty and S.E. Hua, Baltimore, MD and Seoul, Korea). V. Imaging pain. 19. Concepts of pain mechanisms: the contribution of functional imaging of the human brain (K.L. Casey, Ann Arbor, MI, USA). 20. Cortex areas involved in the processing of normal and altered pain (B. Bromm, E. Scharein and C. Vahle-Hinz, Hamberg, Germany. 21. Regional brain oxygenation during phasic and tonic painful stimulation (C. Foster, R. Ringler and H.O. Handwerker (Erlangen, Germany). 22. The functional organization of the brain in chronic pain ( H. Flor, Mannheim, Germany). VI. Human and animal models of chronic pain. 23. Neuroplasticity and clinical pain (G. Carli, Siena, Italy). 24. Multiple mechanisms of secondary hyperalgesia (R.-D. Treede and M. Magerl, Mainz, Germany). 25. Referred pain as an indicator for neural plasticity (L. Arendt-Nielsen, R.J. Laursen and A.M. Drewes, Aalborg, Denmark). 26. Neurochemical plasticity in persistent inflammatory pain ( P. Honoré, P.M. Menning, S.D. Rogers, M.L. Nichols and P.W. Mantyh, Minneapolis, MN, USA). 27. Modelling the prolonged effects of neonatal pain (D. Alvares, C. Torsney, B. Beland, M. Reynolds and M. Fitzgerald (London, UK). 28. Role of sentized pelvic nerve afferents from the inflamed rat colon in the maintenance of visceral hyperalgesia (S.V. Coutinho, X. Su, J.N. Sengupta and G.F. Gebhart (Iowa City, IA, USA). 29. Cellular and neurochemical remodeling of the spinal cord in bone cancer pain (P. Honoré, M.J. Schwei, S.D. Rogers, J.L. Salak-Johnson, M.P. Finke, M.L. Ramnaraine, D.R. Clohisy and P.W. Mantyh, Minneapolis, MN, USA). 30. Altered spinal processing in animal models of radicular and neuropathic pain (E. Carstens, Davis, CA, USA). 31. Allodynia and hyperalgesia within dermatones caudel to a spinal cord injury in primates and rodents (C.J. Vierck, Jr. and A.R. Light, Gainesville, FL and Chapel Hill, NC, USA). 32. Pain following spinal cord injury: pathophysiology and central mechanisms (R.P. Yezierski, Miami, Fl, USA). 33. Sympathetic nervous system: contribution to chronic pain (W. Jänig and H.-J. Häbler, Kiel, Germany). VII. Prevention and treatment of chronic pain. 34. A role for the endogenous cannabinoid system in the peripheral control of pain initiation (A. Calignano, G. La Rana, P. Loubet-Lescoulié and D. Piomelli, (Naples, Italy and Irvine, CA, USA). 35. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of opioid action (S.L. Ingram, Portland, OR, USA). 36. Pre-emptive analgesia in postamputation pain: an update (T.S. Jensen and L. Nikolajsen, Aarhus, Denmark). 37. Pre-emptive analgesia and surgical pain (O.H.G. Wilder-Smith, Berne, Switzerland). 38. Attentional control of pain and the process of chronification (M. Hasenbring, Bochum, Germany).