Natural and Artificial Control of Hearing and Balance

Edited by

  • J.H.J. Allum
  • D.J. Allum-Mecklenburg
  • F.P. Harris
  • R. Probst, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland

A group of internationally recognized engineers, basic scientists and clinicians who seek better understanding of how the neurophysiology of the inner ear and related structures of the central nervous system influence hearing and balance have provided this excellent compendium. The underlying goal is to provide an impetus for the development and enhancement of man-made electrical systems that either produce an artificial sense of hearing or the artificial control of standing and locomotion.

At the symposium on which the book is based, the authors were provided the opportunity to respond to questions immediately, modifying their papers for this volume, thus providing direct peer-reviewing before publication.

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Book information

  • Published: September 1993
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-81252-0

Table of Contents

List of Contributors. Preface. Ad honorem Carl Rudolf Pfaltz. Acknowledgements. Section 1 - Vestibular and Auditory Receptor Physiology. 1. Efferent synapse mechanisms in chick hair cells. 2. Cochlear function reflected in mammalian hair cell responses. 3. Sound processing by a.c. and d.c. movements of cochlear outer hair cells. 4. Performance of the avian inner ear. 5. Mechanical demodulation of hydrodynamic stimuli performed by the lateral line organ. Section II - Otoacoustic Emissions. 6. Amplitude fluctuations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions caused by internal and externally applied noise sources. 7. Exploration of cochlear function by otoacoustic emmissions: relationship to pure-tone audiometry. 8. Distortion-product otoacoustic emmissions in normal and impaired ears: Insights into generation processes. 9. A comparison of transiently-evoked and distortion-product otoacoustic emmissions in humans. Section III - Central Auditory Physiology. 10. Responses to speech signals in the normal and pathological peripheral auditory system. 11. Varieties of inhibition in the processing and control of processing in the mammalian cochlear nucleus. 12. Funtional consequences of neonatal unilateral cochlear removal. 13. Functional organization and learning-related placticity in auditory cortex of the mongolian gerbil. Section IV - Interaction of Cortical and Proprioceptive Reflex Pathways Controlling Posture and Gait. 14. New aspects of human muscle coordination as revealed by motor-unit studies. 15. Interactions between pathways controlling posture and gait at the level of spinal interneurones in the cat. 16. Fusimotor control of proprioceptive feedback during locomotion and balancing: can simple lessons be learned for artificial control of gait? 17. Gating of reflexes during human stance and gait. 18. Modification of reflexes during normal and abnormal movements. Section V - Vestibular Control of Posture. 19. Synaptic organization of the vestibulo-collic pathways from six semicircular canals to motoneurons of different neck muscles. 20. Vestibulospinal reflexes and the reticular formation. 21. Stance and balance following bilateral labyrinthectomy. 22. Vestibular control of skeletal geometry in the guinea-pig: a problem of good trim? 23. Geometrical approach to neural net control of movements and posture. Section VI - Neuroprosthetic Control of Hearing. 24. Quantitative comparison of electrically and acoustically evoked auditory perception: Implications for the location of perceptual mechanisms. 25. Pattern recognition and masking in cochlear implant patients. 26. A digital speech processor and various speech encoding strategies for cochlear implants. 27. New hardware for analog and combined analog and pulsatile sound-encoding strategies. 28. Speech encoding strategies for multielectrode cochlear implants: a digital signal processor approach. 29. New processing strategies for multichannel cochlear prostheses. Section VII - Neuroprosthetic Control of Posture and Gait. 30. Synergies and strategies underlying normal and vestibularly deficient control of balance: implications for neuroprosthetic control. 31. Human standing posture: Multijoint movement strategies based on biomechanical contraints. 32. An integrated EMG/biomechanical model of upper body balance and posture during human gait. 33. Control of standing and gait using electrical stimulation: influence of muscle model complexity on control strategy. 34. FES gait restoration and balance control in spinal cord injured patients. 35. Finite state model of locomotion for functional electrical stimulation systems. 36 Fatigue during functional neuromuscular stimulation. Subject index.