Nanomaterials for Medical Applications

By

  • Zoraida Aguilar, Director of Research and Development at Ocean Nanotech, LLC, Springdale, Arkansas

This title covers recent advances in a variety of biomedical applications of nanostructured materials, as the field evolves from prototype device to real-world application. It presents the main types of nanomaterial used in medical application today: semiconductor nanomaterials, Magnetic nanomaterials, metal nanoparticles, Carbon nanomaterials, Hydrogel nanocomposites, Liposomes, Dendrimers, Polymer nanocomposites, and Biodegradable polymers.

Structurally the work is demarcated into the six most popular areas of research:
(1) biocompatibility of nanomaterials with living organisms in their various manifestations
(2) nanobiosensors for clinical diagnostics, detecting biomolecules which are useful in the clinical diagnosis of genetic, metabolically acquired, induced or infectious disease
(3) targeted drug delivery for nanomaterials in their various modifications
(4) nanomedical devices and structures which are used in the development of implantable medical devices and structures such as nanorobots
(5) nanopharmacology, as novel nanoparticles are increasingly engineered to diagnose conditions and recognize pathogens, identify ideal pharmaceutical agents to treat the condition or pathogens,fuel high-yield production of matched pharmaceuticals (potentially in vivo), locate, attach or enter target tissue, structures or pathogens; and dispense the ideal mass of matched biological compound to the target regions
(6) nanotoxicology and remediation, which focuses on finished and on-going various toxicity evaluations on various nanomaterials that are used and currently being developed for medical applications
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Audience

This reference is principally for use by grad students and above researching aspects of nanomaterial science, either currently being used or being studied for medical applications, including drug delivery, medical imaging, gene therapy, nanorobots, biosensors, and diagnostics. The work will also be of use to nanotech professionals and some policy makers looking for synthesis of existing approaches.

 

Book information

  • Published: October 2012
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-385089-8

Reviews

"Aguilar…presents a broad review of nanomaterials and their application in medicine, from their properties and synthesis to existing and future commercial products."--Reference and Research Book News, February 2013




Table of Contents

Introduction: general overview of nanomaterials and their medical applications

Typologies-introduction of the various properties and characteristics of nanomaterials that are currently used or being developed for medical applications

      1. Semiconductor nanomaterials
      2. Magnetic nanomaterials
      3. Metal nanoparticles
      4. Carbon nanomaterials
      5. Hydrogel nanocomposites
      6. Liposomes
      7. Dendrimers
      8. Polymer nanocomposites
      9. Biodegradable polymers

      Biocompatibility-discussion of the various modifications on nanomaterials to make them biocompatible with

        1. Human cell lines
        2. Microorganisms
        3. Plants
        4. Animals
        5. Proteins
        6. DNA

      Nanobiosensors for clinical diagnostics-biosensor applications of nanomaterials for detection various biomolecules that are useful in the clinical diagnosis of different types of diseases. These diseases may be genetic, metabolically acquired, induced, or caused by infectious disease causing agents.

        1. Whole cell and whole microorganisms
        2. Protein
        3. Nucleic acid

      Targeted drug delivery-this chapter presents the various ways of modifying nanomaterials for targeted drug delivery. Various nanomaterials that are currently used or being developed for targeted drug delivery will be included.

          1. Liposomes
          2. Dendrimers
          3. Magnetic nanoparticles
          4. Hydrogels
          5. Biodegradable polymers

        Nanomedical devices--this chapter will focus on nanomaterials that are used in the development of implantable medical devices and structures such as nanorobots.

            1. Nanorobots
            2. Nanochips and nano implants
            3. Prostheses
            4. Tissue engineering
            5. Cell repair

            Nanopharmacology-nanoparticles can be engineered to diagnose conditions and recognize pathogens; identify ideal pharmaceutical agents to treat the condition or pathogens; fuel high-yield production of matched pharmaceuticals (potentially in vivo); locate, attach or enter target tissue, structures or pathogens; and dispense the ideal mass of matched biological compound to the target regions. 

              1. Nano genetherapy
              2. Nanoimmunotherapy

            Nanotoxicology and remediation-this will focus on finished and on-going various toxicity evaluations on various nanomaterials that are used and currently being developed for medical applications

              1. Influence of size, shape, and composition on toxicity
              2. Mechanism of toxicity in the cellular, tissue, and organism level
              3. Site specific nanotoxicity
              4. Remediation and clean-up of nanomaterials spills and environmental contamination

            Conclusions

              Index