Nano Optoelectronic Sensors and Devices

Nanophotonics from Design to Manufacturing

By

  • Ning Xi
  • King Lai

Nanophotonics has emerged as a major technology and applications domain, exploiting the interaction of light-emitting and light-sensing nanostructured materials. These devices are lightweight, highly efficient, low on power consumption, and are cost effective to produce. The authors of this book have been involved in pioneering work in manufacturing photonic devices from carbon nanotube (CNT) nanowires and provide a series of practical guidelines for their design and manufacture, using processes such as nano-robotic manipulation and assembly methods. They also introduce the design and operational principles of opto-electrical sensing devices at the nano scale. Thermal annealing and packaging processes are also covered, as key elements in a scalable manufacturing process. Examples of applications of different nanowire based photonic devices are presented. These include applications in the fields of electronics (e.g. FET, CNT Schotty diode) and solar energy.
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Audience

Primary: Industrial R&D and Academic communities including optical engineers, photonics engineers, instrumentation engineers, electronics engineers, functional optoelectronic materials engineers and others seeking practical information regarding the development of nanophotonic devices and technologies. Secondary: Graduate courses

 

Book information

  • Published: November 2011
  • Imprint: WILLIAM ANDREW
  • ISBN: 978-1-4377-3471-3


Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Editors

List of Contributers

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Overview

1.2 Impact of Nanomaterials

1.3 Challenges and Difficulties in Manufacturing Nanomaterials-Based Devices

1.3.1 Role of Microfluidics

1.3.2 Role of Robotic Nanoassembly

1.4 Summary

References

Chapter 2 Nanomaterials Processing for Device Manufacturing

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Characteristics of Carbon Nanotubes

2.3 Classification of Carbon Nanotubes using Microfluidics

2.3.1 Dielectrophoretic Phenomenon on CNTs

2.3.2 Experimental Results: Separation of Semiconducting CNTs

2.4 Deposition of CNTs by Microrobotic Workstation

2.5 Summary

References

Chapter 3 Design and Generation of Dielectrophoretic Forces for Manipulating Carbon Nanotubes

3.1 Overview

3.2 Dielectrophoretic Force Modeling

3.2.1 Modeling of Electrorotation for Nanomanipulation

3.2.2 Dynamic Modeling of Rotational Motion of Carbon Nanotubes for Intelligent Manufacturing of CNT-Based Devices

3.2.3 Dynamic Effect of Fluid Medium on Nano Particles by Dielectrophoresis

3.3 Theory for Microelectrode and Electric Field Design for Carbon Nanotube Applications

3.3.1 Microelectrode Design

3.3.2 Theory for Microelectrode Design

3.4 Electric Field Design

3.5 Carbon Nanotubes Application-Simulation Results

3.5.1 Dielectrophoretic Force: Simulation Results

3.5.2 Electrorotation (Torque): Simulation Results

3.5.3 Rotational Motion of Carbon Nanotubes: Simulation Results

3.6 Summary

References

Chapter 4 Atomic Force Microscope-Based Nanorobotic System for Nanoassembly

4.1 Introduction to AFM and Nanomanipulation

4.1.1 AFM’s Basic Principle

4.1.2 Imaging Mode of AFM

4.1.3 AFM-Based Nanomanipulation

4.2 AFM-Based Augmented Reality System

4.2.1 Principle for 3D Nanoforce Feedback

4.2.2 Principle for Real-Time Visual Feedback Generation

4.2.3 Experimental Testing and Discussion

4.3 Augmented Reality System Enhanced by Local Scan

4.3.1 Local Scan Mechanism for Nanoparticle

4.3.2 Local Scan Mechanism for Nanorod

4.3.3 Nanomanipulation with Local Enhanced Augmented Reality System

4.4 CAD-Guided Automated Nanoassembly

4.5 Modeling of Nanoenvironments

4.6 Automated Manipulation of CNT

4.7 Summary

References

Chapter 5 On-Chip Band Gap Engineering of Carbon Nanotubes

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Quantum Electron Transport Model

5.2.1 Nonequilibrium Green’s Functions

5.2.2 Poisson’s Equation and Self-Consistent Algorithm

5.3 Electrical Breakdown Controller of a CNT

5.3.1 Extended Kalman Filter for Fault Detection

5.4 Effects of CNT Breakdown

5.4.1 Current-Voltage Characteristics

5.4.2 Infrared Responses

5.5 Summary

References

Chapter 6 Packaging Processes for Carbon Nanotube-Based Devices

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Thermal Annealing of Carbon Nanotubes

6.3 Electrical and Optical Responses of Carbon Nanotubes After Thermal Annealing

6.4 Parylene Thin Film Packaging

6.5 Electrical and Optical Stability of the CNT-Based Devices After Packaging

6.6 Summary

References

Chapter 7 Carbon Nanotube Schottky Photodiodes

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Review of CNT Photodiodes

7.3 Design of CNT Schottky Photodiodes

7.4 Symmetric Schottky Photodiodes

7.5 Asymmetric Schottky Photodiodes

7.6 Summary

References

Chapter 8 Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor-Based Photodetectors

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Back-Gate Au-CNT-Au Transistors

8.3 Back-Gate Ag-CNT-Ag Transistors

8.4 Back-Gate Au-CNT-Ag Transistors

8.5 Middle-Gate Transistors

8.6 Multigate Transistors

8.7 Detector Array Using CNT-Based Transistors

8.8 Summary

References

Chapter 9 Nanoantennas on Nanowire-Based Optical Sensors

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Nanoantenna Design Consideration for IR Sensors

9.2.1 Optical Nanoantennas Combined with CNT-Based IR Sensors

9.3 Theoretical Analysis: Nanoantenna Near-Field Effect

9.4 Fabrication of Nano Sensor Combined with Nanoantenna

9.5 Photocurrent Measurement on Nano Sensor Combined with Nanoantenna

9.6 Summary

References

Chapter 10 Design of Photonic Crystal Waveguides

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Review of the Photonic Crystal

10.3 Principle for Photonic Crystal

10.4 Phototonic Band Gap of Photonic Crystal

10.4.1 Effect from Dielectric Constants

10.4.2 Effect from Different Structures

10.5 Photonic Crystal Cavity

10.5.1 Basic Design of Photonic Crystal Defect

10.5.2 Defect from Dielectric Constants

10.5.3 Defect from Dielectric Size

10.5.4 Effect from Lattice Number

10.6 Design and Experimental Results of Photonic Crystal Cavity

10.6.1 Design

10.6.2 Photoresponses of CNT-Based IR Sensors with Photonic Crystal Cavities

10.6.3 Photocurrent Mapping of the CNT-Based IR Sensors with Photonic Crystal Cavities

10.7 Summary

References

Chapter 11 Organic Solar Cells Enhanced by Carbon Nanotubes

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Application of Carbon Nanotubes in Organic Solar Cells

11.3 Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Organic Solar Cells

11.4 Performance Analysis of OSCs Enhanced by CNTs

11.4.1 J-V of SWCNTs-Enhanced OSCs Under Illumination

11.4.2 J-V of SWCNTs-Enhanced OSCs in Dark

11.5 Electrical Role of SWCNTs in OSCs

11.6 Summary

References

Chapter 12 Development of Optical Sensors Using Graphene

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Fabrication of Graphene-Based Devices

12.3 Dielectrophoretic Effect on Different Graphene Flakes

12.4 Electrical and Optical Behaviors of Various Graphene-Based Devices

12.5 Summary

References

Chapter 13 Indium Antimonide (InSb) Nanowire-Based Photodetectors

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Growth of InSb Nanowires

13.3 Photodetectors Using Single InSb Nanowires

13.3.1 Symmetric InSb Nanowire Photodetectors

13.3.2 Asymmetric InSb Nanowire Photodetectors

13.4 Summary

References

Chapter 14 Carbon Nanotube-Based Infrared Camera Using Compressive Sensing

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Theoretical Foundation of Compressive Sensing

14.2.1 General Idea

14.2.2 Sparsity

14.2.3 Restricted Isometry Property

14.2.4 Random Matrix

14.2.5 Compressive Sensing Applications

14.3 Compressive Sensing for Single-Pixel Photodetectors

14.3.1 System Architecture

14.3.2 Measurement Matrix

14.3.3 Data Sampling and Image Reconstruction Algorithm

14.4 Experimental Setup and Results

14.4.1 Static Measurement

14.4.2 Dynamic Observation

14.4.3 Performance Analysis

14.5 Summary and Perspectives

References

Index