Multimedia Communications book cover

Multimedia Communications

Directions and Innovations

The rapid advances and industry demands for networked delivery of information and pictures through computer networks and cable television has created a need for new techniques and standards for the packaging and delivery of digital information. Multimedia Communications presents the latest information from industry and academic experts on all standards, methods and protocols. Internet protocols for wireless communications, transcoding of Internet multimedia for universal access, ATM and ISDN chapters, videoconferencing standards, speech and audio coding standards, multi-casting and image compression techniques are included.

Audience
Electrical engineers and computer engineers in multimedia, communications, and signal processing.

Hardbound, 318 Pages

Published: October 2000

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-282160-8

Reviews

  • Experts from industry and academia overview current practices and future directions in the delivery of multiple media content over communications networks to users. Applications that incorporate multiple media types are specifically addressed, such as two-way, multipoint video conferencing and one-way streaming of video and audio. Chapters are descriptive in nature, focused on the presentation of results, insights, and key concepts, with a minimum of mathematical analyses and abstraction. Each chapter is intended to stand alone. Gibson is affiliated with the department of electrical engineering at Southern Methodist University.Book News, Inc.®, Portland, OR

Contents

  • Preface xvList of Contributors xviiChapter 1:ÊÊMultimedia Communications: Source Representations,Networks, and Applications 1Jerry D. Gibson1.1 Introduction 11.2 Networks and Network Services 31.3 Multimedia Sources 61.4 Source and Destination Terminals 81.5 Applications of Multimedia Communications Networks 9 1.5.1 Video Streaming to Multiple Users 10 1.5.2 Videoconferencing 111.6 Conclusions 121.7 For Further Reading 12Chapter 2:ÊÊFuture Telecommunication Networks: Traffic and Technologies 13Leonid G. Kazovsky, Giok-Djan Khoe, and M. Oskar van Deventer2.1 Key Technologies 142.2 Impact of Competition 162.3 Four Traffic Hypotheses 17 2.3.1 Hypothesis 1: Conventional Growth 17 2.3.2 Hypothesis 2: The Internet Age 18 2.3.3 Hypotheses 3 and 4: The Digital Video Age 18 2.3.4 HDTV in the United States 20 2.3.5 Traffic Attributes 202.4 Synergy: Future Projections 212.5 Summary and Conclusions 222.6 Bibliography 22Chapter 3:ÊÊSpeech Coding Standards 25Andreas S. Spanias Abstract 253.1 Introduction 253.2 Speech Analysis-Synthesis and Linear Prediction 27 3.2.1 Long-Term Prediction (LTP) 293.3 Linear Prediction and Speech Coding Standards 29 3.3.1 Open-Loop Linear Prediction 29 3.3.2 Standards Based on Analysis-by-Synthesis Linear Prediction 323.4 Standards Based on Subband and Transform Coders 39 3.4.1 The ITU G.722 Subband Coder 39 3.4.2 Sinusoidal Transform Coding 40 3.4.3 The Multiband Excitation Coder and the Inmarsat-M Standard 403.5 Summary and Emerging Standards 413.6 References 42Chapter 4:ÊÊAudio Coding Standards 45Chi-Min Liu and Wen-Whei Chang4.1 Introduction 454.2 ISO/MPEG Audio Coding Standards 45 4.2.1 MPEG-1 46 4.2.2 MPEG-2 48 4.2.3 MPEG-4 494.3 Other Audio Coding Standards 50 4.3.1 Philips PASC 50 4.3.2 Sony ATRAC 51 4.3.3 Dolby AC-3 524.4 Architectural Overview 53 4.4.1 Psychoacoustic Modeling 53 4.4.2 Time-Frequency Mapping 54 4.4.3 Quantization 54 4.4.4 Variable-Length Coding 56 4.4.5 Multichannel Correlation and Irrelevancy 57 4.4.6 Long-Term Correlation 57 4.4.7 Pre-echo Control 58 4.4.8 Bit Allocation 594.5 Conclusions 594.6 Definitions of Key Terms 594.7 References 604.8 Bibliography 60Chapter 5:ÊÊStill Image Compression Standards 61Michael W. Hoffman and Khalid Sayood5.1 Introduction 615.2 Lossy Compression 62 5.2.1 JPEG 62 5.2.2 JPEG2000 685.3 Lossless Compression 71 5.3.1 JPEG 71 5.3.2 JPEG-LS 715.4 Bilevel Image Compression 73 5.4.1 JBIG 73 5.4.2 JBIG2 785.5 Definitions of Key Terms 795.6 References 805.7 Bibliography 80Chapter 6:ÊÊMultimedia Conferencing Standards 81David Lindbergh6.1 Introduction 816.2 H.320 for ISDN Videoconferencing 82 6.2.1 The H.320 Standards Suite 83 6.2.2 Multiplex 84 6.2.3 System Control Protocol 84 6.2.4 Audio Coding 85 6.2.5 Video Coding 86 6.2.6 H.231 and H.243: Multipoint 87 6.2.7 H.233 and H.234: Encryption 89 6.2.8 H.331 Broadcast 896.3 H.320 Network Adaptation Standards: H.321 and H.322 89 6.3.1 H.321: Adaptation of H.320 to ATM and B-ISDN 90 6.3.2 H.322: Adaptation of H.320 to IsoEthernet 906.4 A New Generation: H.323, H.324, and H.310 90 6.4.1 H.245 Control Protocol 91 6.4.2 Audio and Video Codecs 91 6.4.3 H.323 for Packet Switched Networks 93 6.4.4 H.324 for Lot-Bit-Rate Circuit Switched Networks 96 6.4.5 H.310 for ATM and B-ISDN Networks 986.5 T.120 for Data Conferencing and Conference Control 986.6 Summary 986.7 References 99Chapter 7:ÊÊMPEG-1 and -2 Compression 101Tom Lookabaugh7.1 Introduction 1017.2 The MPEG Model 101 7.2.1 Key Applications and Problems 102 7.2.2 Strategy for Standardization 1027.3 MPEG Video 103 7.3.1 The Basic Algorithm 103 7.3.2 Temporal Prediction 106 7.3.3 Frequency Domain Decomposition 110 7.3.4 Quantization 111 7.3.5 Variable-Length Coding 112 7.3.6 Rate Control 113 7.3.7 Constrained Parameters, Levels, and Profiles 1147.4 Summary 116Chapter 8:ÊÊMPEG-4 and MPEG-7 117Jerry D. Gibson8.1 Introduction 1178.2 MPEG-4 118 8.2.1 MPEG-4 Systems Model 120 8.2.2 Natural Video Coding 124 8.2.3 Audio and Speech Coding 1258.3 MPEG-7 1278.4 Summary 1288.5 References 128Chapter 9:ÊÊATM Network Technology 129Yoichi Maeda and Koichi Asatani9.1 Introduction 1299.2 Overview 130 9.2.1 Background 130 9.2.2 Basic ATM Concept 131 9.2.3 ATM Network Protocol Structure 131 9.2.4 International Standardization and Recommendations 1329.3 Physical Layer Specifications 133 9.3.1 Basic Characteristics of the TC Sublayer 134 9.3.2 Interface Bit Rates 1349.4 ATM Layer Specifications 1349.5 ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) Specifications 1359.6 Network Aspects of B-ISDN 135 9.6.1 Traffic Control 135 9.6.2 ATM Layer Performance 137 9.6.3 OAM Functions 138 9.6.4 Signaling Procedure 138 9.6.5 VB5 Interfaces 1399.7 Other ATM Network Technologies 140 9.7.1 IP Over ATM 140 9.7.2 MPEG2 Over ATM 1419.8 Concluding Remarks 1419.9 Definitions of Key Terms 1419.10 Bibliography 1429.11 For Further Information 142Chapter 10:ÊÊISDN 143Koichi Asatani and Toshinori Tsuboi10.1 Introduction 143 10.1.1 General Features of ISDN 143 10.1.2 Service Aspects of ISDN 144 10.1.3 Access Features 14610.2 ISDN User-Network Interfaces 146 10.2.1 ISDN UNI Structure 146 10.2.2 Reference Configurations and Reference Points 147 10.2.3 Interface Features 14810.3 Layers 1, 2, and 3 Specifications of UNI 151 10.3.1 Layered Structure 151 10.3.2 Basic Interface Layer 1 151 10.3.3 Primary Rate Interface Layer 1 158 10.3.4 Layer 2 Specification 162 10.3.5 Layer 3 Specification 16810.4 Access Transmission Line Systems 171 10.4.1 Outline of Transmission Line System 171 10.4.2 Metallic Transmission Line System for Basic Access 172 10.4.3 Primary Rate Transmission System 17610.5 References 177Chapter 11:ÊÊVideo-on-Demand Broadcasting Protocols 179Steven W. Carter, Darrell D. E. Long, and Jehan-Fran ois P ris11.1 Introduction 17911.2 Common Terms and Concepts 18011.3 Staggered Broadcasting Protocols 18011.4 Pyramid Broadcasting Protocols 18111.5 Harmonic Broadcasting Protocols 18411.6 Summary 18611.7 Definitions of Key Terms 18711.8 References 18811.9 For Further Information 189Chapter 12:ÊÊInternet Telephony Technology and Standards Overview 191Bernard S. Ku12.1 Introduction 19112.2 Internet Telephony Architecture Overview 19212.3 Related Internet Telephony Standards 194 12.3.1 IETF 195 12.3.2 ETSI Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON) 195 12.3.3 ITU-T 196 12.3.4 T1S1 19812.4 Current and Developing Internet Telephony Protocols 198 12.4.1 H.323 198 12.4.2 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) 200 12.4.3 Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) 202 12.4.4 MEGACO/H.248 (H.GCP) 20312.5 How Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Works 205 12.5.1 PSTN Gateways 205 12.5.2 VoIP Gatways 206 12.5.3 IPTel Gateways 20712.6 Open Issues in Internet Telephony 20912.7 IN/IP Integration 210 12.7.1 New Elements/Functions Required 211 12.7.2 Special Extensions Required 212 12.7.3 New IN/IP Interworking Interfaces 213 12.7.4 Information Flow for Click-to-Dial (CTD) Service 21412.8 SS7/IP Integration 215 12.8.1 Transport of SS7 Over IP-Related Protocols 216 12.8.2 Interworking of SS7 with IP-Related Protocols 216 12.8.3 Future of IP/SS7 21712.9 Concluding Remarks 21712.10 Glossary 21712.11 Definitions of Key Terms 21812.12 Acknowledgments 21912.13 Bibliography 219Chapter 13:ÊÊWideband Wireless Packet Data Access 221Justin Chuang, Leonard J. Cimini, Jr., and Nelson Sollenberger13.1 Introduction 221 13.1.1 The Wireless Data Opportunity 221 13.1.2 Current Wireless Data Systems 222 13.1.3 Emerging and Future Wireless Data Options 223 13.1.4 Summary and Outline of the Chapter 22513.2 Packet Data Access Using WCDMA 225 13.2.1 Variable-Rate Packet Data 22513.3 Packet Data Access Using EDGE 228 13.3.1 Link Adaptation and Incremental Redundancy 22913.4 Packet Data Access Using Wideband OFDM 232 13.4.1 Physical-Layer Techniques 232 13.4.2 Physical-Layer Solutions 232 13.4.3 Frequency Reuse and Spectral Efficiency 234 13.4.4 Dynamic Packet Assignment Protocol 235 13.4.5 Dynamic Packet Assignment Performance 235 13.4.6 Radio Link Resource Organization 236 13.4.7 Frame Structure for Dynamic Packet Assignment 239 13.4.8 Simulation Model 240 13.4.9 Simulation Peformance Results 24113.5 Conclusions 24413.6 References 244Chapter 14:ÊÊInternet Protocols Over Wireless Networks 247George C. Polyzos and George Xylomenos Abstract 24714.1 Introduction 24714.2 Internet Protocols and Wireless Links 248 14.2.1 Internet Transport Layer Protocols 248 14.2.2 Protocol Performance Over a Single Wireless Link 249 14.2.3 Protocol Performance Over Multiple Links 25114.3 Performance Enhancements for Internet Protocols 253 14.3.1 Approaches at the Transport Layer 253 14.3.2 Approaches Below the Transport Layer 25414.4 The Future: Challenges and Opportunities 256 14.4.1 Wireless System Evolution 256 14.4.2 Goals for Protocol Evolution 25714.5 Summary 25814.6 References 258Chapter 15:ÊÊTranscoding of the InternetÕs Multimedia Content forUniversal Access 261Richard Han and John R. Smith15.1 Introduction 261 15.1.1 Adapting to Bandwidth Heterogeneity 262 15.1.2 Adapting to Client Heterogeneity 26515.2 End-to-End vs. Proxy-Based Transcoding Designs 26615.3 Architecture of a Transcoding Proxy 27115.4 To Transcode or Not to Transcode 274 15.4.1 A Store-and-Forward Image Transcoding Proxy 274 15.4.2 A Streamed Image Transcoding Proxy 27715.5 Transcoding Policies for Selecting Content 280 15.5.1 Optimal Policies for Offline Pretranscoding 281 15.5.2 Policies for Real-Time Transcoding 28415.6 A Sample Set of Transcoding Policies 28915.7 Related Issues 29115.8 Acknowledgments 29315.9 References 293Chapter 16:ÊÊMulticasting: Issues and Networking Support 297Upkar Varshney16.1 Introduction 29716.2 Multicasting Support 29816.3 Multicasting in IP-Based Networks 299 16.3.1 Routing Protocols for IP Multicast 301 16.3.2 Multimedia Support and IP Multicasting 301 16.3.3 Multimedia Multicasting Applications on the MBone 30216.4 Multicasting in ATM Networks 302 16.4.1 Multicasting Schemes for ATM Networks 30316.5 IP Multicasting Over ATM 305 16.5.1 Problems in RSVP Over ATM 305 16.5.2 IP Multicast Over ATM in VBNS 30616.6 Reliable Multicast Transport Protocols 30616.7 Multicasting in Wireless Networks 307 16.7.1 Issues in IP Multicasting Over Wireless 308 16.7.2 Multicast Support in Wireless ATM 30816.8 Summary and the Future of Multicasting 30816.9 Definitions of Key Terms 30916.10 References 30916.11 For Further Reading 310Index 311

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