Modern Physics book cover

Modern Physics

for Scientists and Engineers

Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of modern physics and to the various fields of contemporary physics. The book's main goal is to help prepare engineering students for the upper division courses on devices they will later take, and to provide physics majors and engineering students an up-to-date description of contemporary physics. The book begins with a review of the basic properties of particles and waves from the vantage point of classical physics, followed by an overview of the important ideas of new quantum theory. It describes experiments that help characterize the ways in which radiation interacts with matter. Later chapters deal with particular fields of modern physics. These include includes an account of the ideas and the technical developments that led to the ruby and helium-neon lasers, and a modern description of laser cooling and trapping of atoms. The treatment of condensed matter physics is followed by two chapters devoted to semiconductors that conclude with a phenomenological description of the semiconductor laser. Relativity and particle physics are then treated together, followed by a discussion of Feynman diagrams and particle physics.

Audience
Sophomore-Junior level students in engineering, physics and other science related disciplines taking a modern physics course

Hardbound, 488 Pages

Published: December 2009

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-375112-6

Contents


  • Preface

    Introduction

    Chapter 1 The Wave-Particle Duality

    1.1 The Particle Model of Light

    1.1.1 The Photoelectric Effect

    1.1.2 The Absorption and Emission of Light by Atoms

    1.1.3 The Compton Effect

    1.2 The Wave Model of Radiation and Matter

    1.2.1 X-Ray Scattering

    1.2.2 Electron Waves

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 2 The Schrödinger Wave Equation

    2.1 The Wave Equation

    2.2 Probabilities and Average Values

    2.3 The Finite Potential Well

    2.4 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator

    2.4.1 The Schrödinger Equation for the Oscillator

    2.5 Time Evolution of the Wave Function

    Suggestion for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 3 Operators and Waves

    3.1 Observables, Operators, and Eigenvalues

    3.2 ∗Algebraic Solution of the Oscillator

    3.3 Electron Scattering

    3.3.1 Scattering from a Potential Step

    3.3.2 Barrier Penetration and Tunneling

    3.4 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

    3.4.1 The Simultaneous Measurement of Two Variables

    3.4.2 Wave Packets and the Uncertainty Principle

    3.4.3 Average Value of the Momentum and the Energy

    Suggestion for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 4 Hydrogen Atom

    4.1 The Gross Structure of Hydrogen

    4.1.1 The Schrödinger Equation in Three Dimensions

    4.1.2 The Energy Levels of Hydrogen

    4.1.3 The Wave Functions of Hydrogen

    4.1.4 Probabilities and Average Values in Three Dimensions

    4.1.5 The Intrinsic Spin of the Electron

    4.2 Radiative Transitions

    4.2.1 The Einstein A and B Coefficients

    4.2.2 Transition Probabilities

    4.2.3 Selection Rules

    4.3 The Fine Structure of Hydrogen

    4.3.1 The Magnetic Moment of the Electron

    4.3.2 The Stern-Gerlach Experiment

    4.3.3 The Spin of the Electron

    4.3.4 The Addition of Angular Momentum

    4.3.5 Rule for Addition of Angular Momenta

    4.3.6 ∗The Fine Structure

    4.3.7 ∗The Zeeman Effect

    Suggestion for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 5 Many-Electron Atoms

    5.1 The Independent-Particle Model

    5.1.1 Antisymmetric Wave Functions and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    5.1.2 The Central-Field Approximation

    5.2 Shell Structure and the Periodic Table

    5.3 The LS Term Energies

    5.4 Configurations of Two Electrons

    5.4.1 Configurations of Equivalent Electrons

    5.4.2 Configurations of Two Nonequivalent Electrons

    5.5 The Hartree-Fock Method

    5.5.1 A Hartree-Fock Applet

    5.5.2 The Size of Atoms and the Strength of Their Interactions

    Suggestion for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 6 The Emergence of Masers and Lasers

    6.1 Radiative Transitions

    6.2 Laser Amplification

    6.3 Laser Cooling

    6.4 ∗Magneto-Optical Traps

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 7 Statistical Physics

    7.1 The Nature of Statistical Laws

    7.2 An Ideal Gas

    7.3 Applications of Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics

    7.3.1 Maxwell Distribution of the Speeds of Gas Particles

    7.3.2 Black-Body Radiation

    7.4 Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics

    7.4.1 The Four Laws of Thermodynamics

    7.5 A Perfect Quantum Gas

    7.6 Bose-Einstein Condensation

    7.7 Free-Electron Theory of Metals

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 8 Electronic Structure of Solids

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 The Bravais Lattice

    8.3 Additional Crystal Structures

    8.3.1 The Diamond Structure

    8.3.2 The Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure

    8.3.3 The Sodium Chloride Structure

    8.4 The Reciprocal Lattice

    8.5 Lattice Planes

    8.6 Blochs Theorem

    8.7 Diffraction of Electrons by an Ideal Crystal

    8.8 The Band Gap

    8.9 Classification of Solids

    8.9.1 The Band Picture

    8.9.2 The Bond Picture

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 9 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors

    9.1 Density of Charge Carriers in Semiconductors

    9.2 Doped Crystals

    9.3 A Few Simple Devices

    9.3.1 The p-n Junction

    9.3.2 Bipolar Transistors

    9.3.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFET)

    9.3.4 MOSFETs

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Summary

    Questions

    Chapter 10 Semiconductor Lasers

    10.1 Motion of Electrons in a Crystal

    10.2 Band Structure of Semiconductors

    10.2.1 Conduction Bands

    10.2.2 Valence Bands

    10.2.3 Optical Transitions

    10.3 Heterostructures

    10.3.1 Properties of Heterostructures

    10.3.2 Experimental Methods

    10.3.3 Theoretical Methods

    10.3.4 Band Engineering

    10.4 Quantum Wells

    10.4.1 The Finite Well

    10.4.2 Two-Dimensional Systems

    10.4.3 ∗Quantum Wells in Heterostructures

    10.5 Quantum Barriers

    10.5.1 Scattering from a Potential Step

    10.5.2 T-Matrices

    10.6 Reflection and Transmission of Light

    10.6.1 Reflection and Transmission by an Interface

    10.6.2 The Fabry-Perot Laser

    10.7 Phenomenological Description of Diode Lasers

    10.7.1 The Rate Equation

    10.7.2 Well Below Threshold

    10.7.3 The Laser Threshold

    10.7.4 Above Threshold

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 11 Relativity I

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Galilean Transformations

    11.3 The Relative Nature of Simultaneity

    11.4 Lorentz Transformation

    11.4.1 The Transformation Equations

    11.4.2 Lorentz Contraction

    11.4.3 Time Dilation

    11.4.4 The Invariant Space-Time Interval

    11.4.5 Addition of Velocities

    11.4.6 The Doppler Effect

    11.5 Space-Time Diagrams

    11.5.1 Particle Motion

    11.5.2 Lorentz Transformations

    11.5.3 The Light Cone

    11.6 Four-Vectors

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 12 Relativity II

    12.1 Momentum and Energy

    12.2 Conservation of Energy and Momentum

    12.3 ∗The Dirac Theory of the Electron

    12.3.1 Review of the Schrödinger Theory

    12.3.2 The Klein-Gordon Equation

    12.3.3 The Dirac Equation

    12.3.4 Plane Wave Solutions of the Dirac Equation

    12.4 ∗Field Quantization

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 13 Particle Physics

    13.1 Leptons and Quarks

    13.2 Conservation Laws

    13.2.1 Energy, Momentum, and Charge

    13.2.2 Lepton Number

    13.2.3 Baryon Number

    13.2.4 Strangeness

    13.2.5 Charm, Beauty, and Truth

    13.3 Spatial Symmetries

    13.3.1 Angular Momentum of Composite Systems

    13.3.2 Parity

    13.3.3 Charge Conjugation

    13.4 Isospin and Color

    13.4.1 Isospin

    13.4.2 Color

    13.5 Feynman Diagrams

    13.5.1 Electromagnetic Interactions

    13.5.2 Weak Interactions

    13.5.3 Strong Interactions

    13.6 ∗The Flavor and Color SU(3) Symmetries

    13.6.1 The SU(3) Symmetry Group

    13.6.2 The Representations of SU(3)

    13.7 ∗Gauge Invariance and the Higgs Boson

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Chapter 14 Nuclear Physics

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Properties of Nuclei

    14.2.1 Nuclear Sizes

    14.2.2 Binding Energies

    14.2.3 The Semiempirical Mass Formula

    14.3 Decay Processes

    14.3.1 Alpha Decay

    14.3.2 The β-Stability Valley

    14.3.3 Gamma Decay

    14.3.4 Natural Radioactivity

    14.4 The Nuclear Shell Model

    14.4.1 Nuclear Potential Wells

    14.4.2 Nucleon States

    14.4.3 Magic Numbers

    14.4.4 The Spin-Orbit Interaction

    14.5 Excited States of Nuclei

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Basic Equations

    Summary

    Questions

    Problems

    Appendix A Natural Constants and Conversion Factors

    Appendix B Atomic Masses

    Appendix C Solution of the Oscillator Equation

    Appendix D The Average Value of the Momentum

    Appendix E The Hartree-Fock Applet

    Appendix F Integrals That Arise in Statistical Physics

    Appendix G The Abinit Applet

    Index






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