Fish farming has increased in status equal to cattle farming as a source of food for mankind. In developing countries fish and shellfish provide inexpensive animal protein, while in developed countries aquaculture is expected to produce more fish and shellfish as a source of low-calorie protein for health conscious individuals. In such an era, knowledge of fish farming technologies of different countries, strongly influenced by cultural factors, is of valuable importance. The primary production techniques of fish farming in Japan described here have an emphasis on practical technology. This second edition reflects the changes in both quantity of production and technology in Japanese aquaculture. The statistics have been revised and the text rewritten to suit the current status of aquaculture in Japan; new aquaculture species have been included and discussions on marine ranching and biotechnology for aquaculture added.