Mathematical Submodels in Water Quality SystemsEdited by
- S.E. Jørgensen, Copenhagen, Denmark
- M.J. Gromiec, Instytut Meteorologii i Gospodarki Wodnej, Warsaw, Poland
The use of models to assess water quality is becoming increasingly important worldwide. In order to be able to develop a good model, it is necessary to have a good quantitative and ecological description of physical, chemical and biological processes in ecosystems. Such descriptions may be called ``submodels''. This book presents the most important, but not all, submodels applied in water quality modelling. Each chapter deals with a specific physical process and covers its importance, the most applicable submodels (and how to select one), parameter values and their determination, and future research needs.The book will be an excellent reference source for environmental engineers, ecological modellers and all those interested in the modelling of water quality systems.
Developments in Environmental Modelling
Published: August 1989
- Chapter 1. Introduction. The application of submodels. Overview of the presented submodels. 2. Volatilization. Introduction. The importance of volatilization in environmental context. Models of the volatilization process. The application of the volatilization submodel in environmental modelling. Parameter estimation in the volatilization submodel. Conclusions and future research needs. 3. Reaeration. Introduction. Measurement techniques. Predictive models. Analysis of predictive models for rivers. Summary and conclusion. 4. Adsorption and Ion Exchange. Introduction. Modelling adsorption and ion exchange. The application of adsorption and ion exchange submodels in water quality modelling. Parameter estimation in the adsorption-ion exchange submodel. Conclusions and further research needs. 5. Heat Exchange. Introduction. Evaluation of heat budget terms. Heat exchange at air-water interface. Applications. Acknowledgements. 6. Sedimentation. The role of sedimentation in modelling aquatic ecosystems. Models of sedimentation. Parameter estimation. Application in ecological modelling. Conclusions and further research needs. 7. Coagulation. Introduction. Models of the coagulation process. Aspects of application and parameter estimation. Conclusions and further research needs. 8. Precipitation. Introduction. Mathematical models of the precipitation process. Parameter estimation. Application and examples. 9. Complex Formation. Introduction. Models of complex formation. Parameter estimation. Application of complex formation in environmental models. Conclusions. 10. Hydrolysis and Chemical Redox Processes. Introduction. Models of hydrolysis and redox processes. Parameter estimation. Conclusions. 11. Photochemical Reactions. Introduction. Theoretical basis for the modelling of photochemical reactions. Modelling photochemical reactions in natural waters. Estimation of model parameters. Incorporation of photochemical reactions into geochemical models. Conclusions and research needs. 12. Microbial Decomposition. Introduction. Mathematical models of microbial decomposition. Parameter estimation. Future research needs. 13. Nitrification. Introduction. Nitrifying micro-organisms and factors affecting nitrification. Growth kinetics of nitrifying micro-organisms. Sensitivity of growth parameters to nitrification process. Kinetics expressions for inhibition. Environmental factors. Nitrification zones in natural water bodies. 14. Predator-Prey Interactions. Introduction. Predator-prey models. Elements of predator-prey interaction. Dependence of activity of predators on environmental factors. Predation on more than one prey population. Experimental parameters and function estimation of predator-prey interactions. Applications: predator-prey interactions in ecosystem models. Conclusions and research needs. 15. Primary Productivity. Introduction. Methods and measuring. Model complexity. Formulations. Model application and evaluation. Parameter estimation and data requirements. 16. Fish Growth. Introduction. The metabolic growth model. Parameter estimation. Application and examples. Other metabolic growth equations. Conclusion and research needs. Symbol glossary. 17. Sediment-Water Exchange Models. Introduction. Essential submodels. Application of sediment models. Parameter estimation in sediment submodels. Selection of submodels. Appendix. List of Authors. Index.