Materials Science of Thin Films


  • Milton Ohring, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (Retired)

This is the first book that can be considered a textbook on thin film science, complete with exercises at the end of each chapter. Ohring has contributed many highly regarded reference books to the AP list, including Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and the Engineering Science of Thin Films. The knowledge base is intended for science and engineering students in advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate level courses on thin films and scientists and engineers who are entering or require an overview of the field.Since 1992, when the book was first published, the field of thin films has expanded tremendously, especially with regard to technological applications. The second edition will bring the book up-to-date with regard to these advances. Most chapters have been greatly updated, and several new chapters have been added.
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Advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students in materials science and electrical engineering; researchers in industrial in-house courses, or short courses offered by professional societies.


Book information

  • Published: October 2001
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-524975-1


"There is a need for new, comprehensive texts and references in [advanced materials processing] and its subdisciplines. This has been especially true for thin films, and of the several recent books on the subject, Milton Ohring's extensive volume is without a doubt the best."
Praise for the First Edition, --NATURE

"Ohring's very timely and excellent book fills a long-existing need in materials education at the graduate level....The book is very well written, presented, and illustrated. It will prove useful to the scientist or engineer in coatings, to the college senior working on a project, and especially to graduate students in materials science and engineering and to faculty involved in teaching or research in the area of thin films. An excellent acquisition for an academic library."
"The author writes in a fluent and engaging style which the student should have little trouble in understanding. His examples and technical insights do a great deal to make his text readable..."
"The combination of teaching, research, and industrial involvement has provide Profesor Ohring with a broad perspective of thin film science and technoloy and tremendous insight into the needs of students entering this exciting field. His insight and experience are quite evident in this textbook."
--JOHN L. VOSSEN, John Vossen Associates, Inc.
"The text is easy to read, technically correct, unfolds in a logical manner, and includes a large number of important features related to thin films. I congratulate the author for proposing a thoughtful treatment of this increasingly popular subject."
--CHARLES L. BAUER, Carnegie Mellon University
"Professor Milt Ohring has a long and unique perspective of thin film science from his dealings with academia and industry. This book represents his accumulated experiences of teaching and research. Thin film science is at the heart of many of our most advanced technologies. This book should prove invaluable not only to the university student but also to the professional who needs a broad overview of this important field."
--J.M. POATE, AT&T Bell Laboratories

Table of Contents

Foreword to First EditionPrefaceAcknowledgmentsA Historical PerspectiveChapter 1 A Review of Materials Science 1.1. Introduction1.2. Structure1.3. Defects in Solids 1.4. Bonds and Bands in Materials 1.5. Thermodynamics of Materials 1.6. Kinetics1.7. Nucleation 1.8. An Introduction to Mechanical Behavior1.9. ConclusionExercisesReferencesChapter 2 Vacuum Science and Technology 2.1. Introduction2.2. Kinetic Theory of Gases 2.3. Gas Transport and Pumping 2.4. Vacuum Pumps2.5. Vacuum Systems 2.6. ConclusionExercisesReferencesChapter 3 Thin-Film Evaporation Processes3.1. Introduction3.2. The Physics and Chemistry of Evaporation 3.3. Film Thickness Uniformity and Purity3.4. Evaporation Hardware3.5. Evaporation Processes and Applications 3.6. ConclusionExercisesReferencesChapter 4 Discharges, Plasmas, and Ion-Surface Interactions4.1. Introduction 4.2. Plasmas, Discharges, and Arcs 4.3. Fundamentals of Plasma Physics 4.4. Reactions in Plasmas4.5. Physics of Sputtering 4.6. Ion Bombardment Modification of Growing Films4.7. ConclusionExercisesReferencesChapter 5 Plasma and Ion Beam Processing of Thin Films5.1. Introduction 5.2. DC, AC, and Reactive Sputtering Processes5.3. Magnetron Sputtering5.4. Plasma Etching5.5. Hybrid and Modified PVD Processes 5.6. ConclusionExercisesReferencesChapter 6 Chemical Vapor Deposition6.1. Introduction6.2. Reaction Types 6.3. Thermodynamics of CVD 6.4. Gas Transport6.5. Film Growth Kinetics 6.6. Thermal CVD Processes 6.7. Plasma-Enhanced CVD Processes 6.8. Some CVD Materials Issues 6.9. Safety6.10. Conclusion ExercisesReferencesChapter 7 Substrate Surfaces and Thin-Film Nucleation 7.1. Introduction 7.2. An Atomic View of Substrate Surfaces 7.3. Thermodynamic Aspects of Nucleation7.4. Kinetic Processes in Nucleation and Growth 7.5. Experimental Studies of Nucleation and Growth7.6. Conclusion ExercisesReferencesChapter 8 Epitaxy8.1. Introduction8.2. Manifestations of Epitaxy8.3. Lattice Misfit and Defects in Epitaxial Films8.4. Epitaxy of Compound Semiconductors8.5. High-Temperature Methods for Depositing Epitaxial Semiconductor Films8.6. Low-Temperature Methods for Depositing Epitaxial Semiconductor Films8.7. Mechanisms and Characterization of Epitaxial Film Growth8.8. ConclusionExercisesReferences Chapter 9 Film Structure9.1. Introduction9.2. Structural Morphology of Deposited Films and Coatings9.3. Computational Simulations of Film Structure9.4. Grain Growth, Texture, and Microstructure Control in Thin Films9.5. Constrained Film Structures9.6. Amorphous Thin Films 9.7. ConclusionExercisesReferencesChapter 10 Characterization of Thin Films and Surfaces10.1. Introduction10.2. Film Thickness10.3. Structural Characterization of Films and Surfaces10.4. Chemical Characterization of Surfaces and Films10.5. ConclusionExercisesReferencesChapter 11 Interdiffusion, Reactions, and Transformations in Thin Films11.1. Introduction 11.2. Fundamentals of Diffusion11.3. Interdiffusion in Thin Metal Films11.4. Compound Formation and Phase Transformations in Thin Films11.5. Metal-Semiconductor Reactions11.6. Mass Transport in Thin Films under Large Driving Forces11.7. ConclusionExercisesReferencesChapter 12 Mechanical Properties of Thin Films 12.1. Introduction12.2. Mechanical Testing and Strength of Thin Films 12.3. Analysis of Internal Stress12.4. Techniques for Measuring Internal Stress in Films12.5. Internal Stresses in Thin Films and Their Causes12.6. Mechanical Relaxation Effects in Stressed Films12.7. Adhesion12.8. ConclusionExercisesReferencesIndex