Marine Propellers and PropulsionBy
- John Carlton
Although the propeller lies submerged out of sight, it is a complex component in both the hydrodynamic and structural sense. This book fulfils the need for a comprehensive and cutting edge volume that brings together a great range of knowledge on propulsion technology, a multi-disciplinary and international subject. The book comprises three main sections covering hydrodynamics; materials and mechanical considerations; and design, operation and performance. The discussion relates theory to practical problems of design, analysis and operational economy, and is supported by extensive design information, operational detail and tabulated data. Fully updated and revised to cover the latest advances in the field, the new edition now also includes four new chapters on azimuthing and podded propulsors, propeller-rudder interaction, high-speed propellers, and propeller-ice interaction.
Practising marine engineers and naval architects; Marine engineering students on propulsion & hydrodynamics courses; Academic/corporate libraries
Published: June 2007
Imprint: Butterworth Heinemann
- 1 The early development of the screw propeller 2 Propulsion systems 2.1 Fixed pitch propellers2.2 Ducted propellers 2.3 Podded and azimuthing propulsors 2.4 Contra-rotating propellers 2.5 Overlapping propellers 2.6 Tandem propellers 2.7 Controllable pitch propellers 2.8 Waterjet propulsion 2.9 Cycloidal propellers 2.10 Paddle wheels 2.11 Magnetohydrodynamic propulsion 2.12 Superconducting motors for marine propulsion 3 Propeller geometry 3.1 Frames of reference 3.2 Propeller reference lines 3.3 Pitch 3.4 Rake and skew 3.5 Propeller outlines and area 3.6 Propeller drawing methods 3.7 Section geometry and definition 3.8 Blade thickness distribution and thickness fraction 3.9 Blade interference limits for controllable pitch propellers 3.10 Controllable pitch propeller off-design section geometry 3.11 Miscellaneous conventional propeller geometry terminology 4 The propeller environment 4.1 Density of water 4.2 Salinity 4.3 Water temperature 4.4 Viscosity 4.5 Vapour pressure 4.6 Dissolved gases in sea water 4.7 Surface tension 4.8 Weather 4.9 Silt and marine organisms 5 The wake field 5.1 General wake field characteristics 5.2 Wake field definition 5.3 The nominal wake field 5.4 Estimation of wake field parameters 5.5 Effective wake field 5.6 Wake field scaling 5.7 Wake quality assessment 5.8 Wake field measurement 6 Propeller performance characteristics 6.1 General open water characteristics 6.2 The effect of cavitation on open water characteristics 6.3 Propeller scale effects 6.4 Specific propeller open water characteristics 6.5 Standard series data 6.6 Multi-quadrant series data 6.7 Slipstream contraction and flow velocities in the wake 6.8 Behind-hull propeller characteristics 6.9 Propeller ventilation 7 Theoretical methods â basic concepts 7.1 Basic aerofoil section characteristics 7.2 Vortex filaments and sheets 7.3 Field point velocities 7.4 The Kutta condition7.5 The starting vortex 7.6 Thin aerofoil theory 7.7 Pressure distribution calculations 7.8 Boundary layer growth over an aerofoil 7.9 The finite wing 7.10 Models of propeller action 7.11 Source and vortex panel methods 8 Theoretical methods â propeller theories 8.1 Momentum theory â Rankine (1865); R. E. Froude (1887) 8.2 Blade element theory âW. Froude (1878) 8.3 Propeller-Theoretical development (1900â1930) 8.4 Burrillâs analysis procedure (1944) 8.5 Lerbs analysis method (1952) 8.6 Eckhardt and Morganâs design method (1955) 8.7 Lifting surface correction factors â Morgan et al. 8.8 Lifting surface models 8.9 Lifting-line â lifting-surface hybrid models 8.10 Vortex lattice methods 8.11 Boundary element methods 8.12 Methods for specialist propulsors 8.13 Computational fluid dynamics methods 9 Cavitation 9.1 The basic physics of cavitation 9.2 Types of cavitation experienced by propellers 9.3 Cavitation considerations in design 9.4 Cavitation inception 9.5 Cavitation-induced damage 9.6 Cavitation testing of propellers 9.7 Analysis of measured pressure data from a cavitating propeller 9.8 Propellerârudder interaction 10 Propeller noise 10.1 Physics of underwater sound 10.2 Nature of propeller noise 10.3 Noise scaling relationships 10.4 Noise prediction and control 10.5 Transverse propulsion unit noise 10.6 Measurement of radiated noise 11 Propellerâship interaction 11.1 Bearing forces11.2 Hydrodynamic interaction 12 Ship resistance and propulsion 12.1 Froudeâs analysis procedure 12.2 Components of calm water resistance 12.3 Methods of resistance evaluation 12.4 Propulsive coefficients 12.5 The influence of rough water 12.6 Restricted water effects 12.7 High-speed hull form resistance 12.8 Air resistance 13 Thrust augmentation devices 13.1 Devices before the propeller 13.2 Devices at the propeller 13.3 Devices behind the propeller 13.4 Combinations of systems 14 Transverse thrusters 14.1 Transverse thrusters 14.2 Steerable internal duct thrusters 15 Azimuthing and podded propulsors 15.1 Azimuthing thrusters15.2 Podded propulsors 16 Waterjet propulsion 16.1 Basic principle of waterjet propulsion 16.2 Impeller types 16.3 Manoeuvring aspects of waterjets 16.4 Waterjet component design 17 Full-scale trials 17.1 Power absorption measurements 17.2 Bollard pull trials 17.3 Propeller-induced hull surface pressure measurements 17.4 Cavitation observation 18 Propeller materials 18.1 General properties of propeller materials 18.2 Specific properties of propeller materials 18.3 Mechanical properties 18.4 Test procedures 19 Propeller blade strength 19.1 Cantilever beam method 19.2 Numerical blade stress computational methods 19.3 Detailed strength design considerations 19.4 Propeller backing stresses 19.5 Blade root fillet design 19.6 Residual blade stresses 19.7 Allowable design stresses 19.8 Full-scale blade strain measurement 20 Propeller manufacture 20.1 Traditional manufacturing method 20.2 Changes to the traditional technique of manufacture 21 Propeller blade vibration 21.1 Flat-plate blade vibration in air 21.2 Vibration of propeller blades in air 21.3 The effect of immersion in water 21.4 Simple estimation methods 21.5 Finite element analysis 21.6 Propeller blade damping 21.7 Propeller singing 22 Propeller design 22.1 The design and analysis loop 22.2 Design constraints 22.3 The choice of propeller type 22.4 The propeller design basis 22.5 The use of standard series data in design 22.6 Basic design considerations 22.7 The design process 23 Operational problems 23.1 Performance related problems 23.2 Propeller integrity related problems 23.3 Impact or grounding 24 Service performance and analysis 24.1 Effects of weather 24.2 Hull roughness and fouling 24.3 Hull drag reduction 24.4 Propeller roughness and fouling 24.5 Generalized equations for the roughness-induced power penalties in ship operation 24.6 Monitoring of ship performance 25 Propeller tolerances and inspection 25.1 Propeller tolerances 25.2 Propeller inspection 26 Propeller maintenance and repair 26.1 Causes of propeller damage 26.2 Propeller repair 26.3 Welding and the extent of weld repairs 26.4 Stress relief