Managing People in Sport Organizations
a strategic human resource management perspectiveBy
- Tracy Taylor, Professor and Associate Dean in the Faculty of Business, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
- Alison Doherty, Associate Professor, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, Canada
- Peter McGraw, Associate Professor, Director of Labour-Management Studies Foundation, Macquarie University, Australia
Managing People in Sport Organizations provides a comprehensive overview of the theory and practice of managing people within a human resource management framework. It provides the reader with the skills to understand and work with people in sport organizations and, given the significant changes in sport organizations over the past twenty years, it addresses the issues of managing organizational complexity and how human resources adds value. Written by a team of expert authors it:* Provides a systematic approach to managing people based on well established conceptual frameworks supported by substantial empirical research* Analysis and explains how to understand and work with people in organisationally complex situations* Outlines how HR can support organisational strategy, positively impact performance and deliver sustainable success* Designs a strategic human resource management plan that is effective, sustainable and able to adapt to changing conditions.* Covers the key research findings in the key area of HR in sport.With each chapter including learning objectives, key issues, international cases studies and supported by online PowerPoint slides Managing People in Sport Organizations is the definitive text for this crucial area of sports management.
Primary audience: Level 1 & 2 undergraduates - the topic area is often a first year subject in sport management courses and a second year or elective subject in other degrees.
Secondary audience: Practitioners
Published: August 2007
Imprint: Butterworth Heinemann
- Chapter 1 - Introduction- Managing people in contemporary sport organisations is a challenging enterprise in the context of changing technologies, workforce composition, expectations, employment legislation and the increasing impact of global competition. This book examines the different approaches to managing people and attempts to locate these approaches within various theoretical, historical and regulatory contexts.The introduction will set out the evolution of sport organisations through to the contemporary sport organizations we see today. In parallel with this, the people management challenges and opportunities that are now present will be discussed in detail. This section may include a commentary on why sport organizations are captives of their history and are, in many cases, managing with inappropriate techniques given the prevailing environment. This section will provide an overview of the individuals who come to work and volunteer in those organizations, addressing such aspects as competencies, personality, needs, values and beliefs that factor into the effective management of people in the workplace. The nature and attributes of workgroups in which individuals find themselves will also be considered as a fundamental part of the context of human resource management.The concept of strategic human resource management will be introduced. There will be an overview of the rise of strategic management and strategic HRM (SHRM), and how this relates to strategic alignment and organisational performance in modern organizations. The case will be made that modern HRM techniques are the most effective way of increasing performance in modern organizations, particularly those in the service sector. We will overview of the importance of volunteers, key issues and research findings. Considerations and feasibility in involving volunteers in the organisation.Specific HRM tools and strategies will be outlined in the following areas:Chapter 2: Managing Human Resources in Sport OrganisationsSupervision, support and management of paid staff and volunteers within a HRM framework. Policy frameworks to guide the involvement of both paid staff and volunteers in the organization. Included will be how paid staff and volunteers are to be managed; conditions of employment; the rights of volunteers; occupational health and safety conditions; insurance coverage; equal opportunity, grievance and disciplinary policy; training requirements or commitments; support and supervision; and privacy, security and confidentiality. Discussion of volunteer-staff relations.Chapter 3: Job Analysis and Design in Sport Organisations. Explain job analysis and job design. Use of job analysis information. The significance of job analysis and job design to the human resource management process. The relationship of job analysis and design to other human resource management functions such as recruitment and selection, training and development, and performance management. Examples of the content of a job description and job specification. Chapter 4: Recruiting and selecting candidates in Sport Organisations. Recruitment and selection are different stages of the process by which an organisation secures the best available staff for new or vacant jobs, positions or work roles. We will cover the role of recruitment and selection in human resource strategy, as well as approaches to recruitment and selection practice and their implications. Specific sport related examples and cases will be used to illustrate appropriate and effective techniques.Volunteer recruitment and selection. Alignment of procedures with HRM policy. Volunteer job descriptions guide for the expectations of the volunteer and the organisation. Developing selection criteria and appropriate selection techniques. Types of volunteer recruitment, ie personal contact through to a large media campaigns. Differences and similarities in recruiting large numbers of people for a one-off event to small numbers of permanent volunteer staff.Chapter 5: Orienting New Employee and Volunteers in Sport Organisations. Use of orientation and how it fits into SHRM. Looks at policies, procedures, organisation history, goals, culture. This is particularly important in sport organisations where goals are often strongly linked to the heritage of the organisation ie its history, traditions, culture, myths, rituals etc.Chapter 6: Training and Development in Sport Organisations . Training and development are important ingredients of an organisations competitiveness. The contribution this HRM function can make, both to the organisations competitiveness and to employee satisfaction and employability is outlined.Chapter 7: Performance Management and Appraisal in Sport Organisations. How performance management is used to appraise staff performance The issues which influence the selection of a performance appraisal system. Uses of performance appraisals and possible biases in carrying out performance appraisals. How the results of performance appraisals affect human resource management.Chapter 8: Motivation and Reward Systems in Sport Organisations. The psychological contract of involvement or commitment is covered. What motivates employees research findings. Performance-related pay systems that have been developed to reward individual, group or organisational performance are discussed. Using Teams. Characteristics of effective teams, identifying and developing individual and team talent, task-role clarification, problem-solving, interpersonal relationships and performance. Retaining volunteers. Processes and procedures that foster a sense of organisational commitment among volunteers. How to value, support, recognise and reward volunteer efforts. Developing organisational commitment, training and development,performance appraisal, recognising and rewarding volunteers, and retaining or replacing volunteers. Chapter 9: Sport Organisations and Managing Outsourcing Arrangements. Different types and models of outsourcing. Reasons for outsourcing eg cost savings, quality improvement, and focus on core competencies. Issues involved in management of outsourcing.Seasonal employment competition or event based. Hiring and firing of employees/volunteers according to event and seasonal fluctuations. Adjusting internal employment to external labor markets.Chapter 10: Sport Organisations and Succession management. Incorporating shared values and culture, competencies, and behaviors as a basis for succession discussions and decisions. Aligning succession process with talent management and the business strategy of the organization.Implementing succession planning or succession management. Identifying successors and high potential candidates identified. Measures to determine success.Chapter 11: Sport Organisations and Diversity Management. Sources of difference and diversity that both unite and divide organisational members, and assumptions and stereotypes that affect social relations in organisations. Outlined are approaches that have been adopted to address individual and group differences and needs. This approach provides a context for explaining how diversity management relates to concepts of social justice and equity and the legislative means that have been developed to redress historical inequities experienced by certain social groups. This is often referred to as Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action. Chapter 12: Sport Organisations and Employee Relations. The roles and responsibilities of managers in handling staff equitably to provide a fair workplace and one which stimulates employees to contribute at the highest level. Issues discussed will include employee involvement and consultation strategies, and policies for handling grievances and disciplinary matters. Building on these the chapter will discuss general strategies for dealing with conflict and outline related research in the sport setting. Also this chapter will deal with the issues of employer and employee rights and obligations towards ceasing the contract of employment. Conducting exit interviews and how to apply them in the workplace. General legal concepts and issues relating to staff termination will be outlinedChapter 13: Managing Change and Future ChallengesChange management. Factors that managers need to consider when introducing change into organizations. Topics covered include, factors driving change in sport organizations both external and internal; the reasons why individuals and organizations are typically resistant to change; how resistance can be managed at the individual and organizational level. The chapter draws on the seminal work of Kotter (1996) and outlines a practical approach to managing the typical issues that need to be dealt with during change. Examples include: overcoming complacency; outlining a compelling case; dealing with the politics of change; mapping out a timetable for change; communication strategies and delivering small wins to maintain momentum. Additionally, research on change in sport organisations stemming from the growing need to professionalise will be presented and discussed. We will conclude with a section on some of the key challenges that sport organisations may face in the next 5-10 years.Global workforce issues. Multinational firms face the challenge of managing people in cultural environments that are different to the home culture of the firm. A brief introduction and discussion of the types of challenges faced when managing staff internationally and those related to a global workforce.