Managed Pressure Drilling book cover

Managed Pressure Drilling

With extraction out of depleted wells more important than ever, this new and developing technology is literally changing drilling engineering for future generations. Never before published in book form, these cutting-edge technologies and the processes that surround them are explained in easy-tounderstand language, complete with worked examples, problems and solutions. This volume is invaluable as a textbook for both the engineering student and the veteran engineer who needs to keep up with changing technology.

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Published: December 2013

Imprint: Gulf Publishing Company

ISBN: 978-0-12-799987-6

Contents


  • Preface

    Contributors

    List of Abbreviations

    Chapter 1 The Why and Basic Principles of Managed Well-Bore Pressure

    About This Chapter

    1.1 Introduction to Managed Pressure Drilling and Some Definitions

    1.2 History

    1.2.1 Old Ideas Made New

    1.2.2 New Ideas

    1.3 Advantages and Methods of Managed Pressure Drilling

    1.3.1 An Adaptive Process

    1.3.2 Extending the Casing Points

    1.3.3 Lost Circulation

    1.3.4 Well Kicks

    1.3.5 Differentially Stuck Drill Pipe

    1.3.6 Deepwater Drilling

    1.4 Basic Mathematical Ideas behind MPD

    1.4.1 Bottom-Hole Pressure Calculations with Liquids

    1.4.2 Expansion (or Compression) of a Gas Bubble with No Fluid Flow

    1.4.3 Ideal Gas Law

    1.4.4 Strong-White Equation

    1.4.5 The Effect of Annular Pressure Loss on Bubble Size

    1.5 Basic Well Control

    1.5.1 Driller’s Method of Well Control

    1.5.2 Wait and Weight Method of Well Control

    1.5.3 Basic Well-Control Formulas

    1.5.4 Lag Time-Choke to Bottom of the Hole or Choke to Standpipe

    1.6 Pore Pressure

    1.7 Overburden Pressure

    1.8 Rock Mechanics

    1.8.1 Fracture Pressure

    1.8.2 Well-Bore Ballooning and the Leak-off Test

    Questions

    References

    Answers

    Chapter 2 Situational Problems in MPD

    About This Chapter

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 ECD Manipulation-Pore Pressure and Fracture Pressure Convergence

    2.2.1 Chokes

    2.2.2 Pumps

    2.2.3 Pipe Movement

    2.2.4 "Ballooning"

    2.2.5 Precision

    2.2.6 Well Control

    2.2.7 Lag Time

    2.3 Total Lost Circulation

    2.4 Deepwater Marine Drilling

    2.4.1 The Problem in the Surface Hole

    2.4.2 Excessive Casing Strings

    2.4.3 U-Tube Effect in Riserless or Limited Riser Operations

    2.4.4 Hydrostatic Control Valve

    2.4.5 Annular Pressure Changes (ECD Problems)

    2.4.6 Well-Bore Ballooning

    2.4.7 Well Control

    2.5 Connections and Trips

    2.6 Annular Pressure Loss and Hydraulics

    2.6.1 Equivalent Circulating Density

    2.6.2 Historical Calculation of the ΔP in APL

    2.6.3 Annular Pressure Loss Calculations

    2.6.4 Hydraulics Equations

    2.6.5 Annular Frictional Pressure Loss Calculation, ΔPa

    2.7 The Effect of Pipe Movement

    2.7.1 Pipe Movement Changes the Bottom-Hole Pressure

    2.7.2 Estimating Pressure Surge and Swab

    Questions

    References

    Answers

    Chapter 3 Constant Bottom-Hole Pressure with Pressure as a Primary Control

    About This Chapter

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Pressure Control

    3.3 Constant-BHP Choke Systems

    3.4 Operational Considerations

    3.5 DAPC System Description

    3.5.1 DAPC Choke Manifold

    3.5.2 DAPC Back-Pressure Pump

    3.5.3 Integrated Pressure Manager

    3.5.4 Case Study

    Questions

    References

    Answers

    Chapter 4 MPD with Flow Measurement as the Primary Control

    About This Chapter

    4.1 Description of the Process

    4.2 Special Drilling Equipment

    4.2.1 Circulation Path

    4.2.2 Rotating Control Device

    4.2.3 Drilling Manifold

    4.3 Real-Time Data Acquisition and Control

    4.4 Drilling Applications

    4.4.1 Standard Approach

    4.4.2 Special Systems Approach

    4.5 Case Histories

    Questions

    References

    Answers

    Chapter 5 Continuous Circulation System

    About This Chapter

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 The System

    5.3 Development

    5.4 Control System

    5.5 Applications

    5.6 Operation

    5.7 Well Planning

    5.8 Records and Reporting

    5.9 Case History

    5.10 Safety

    Questions

    References

    Answers

    Chapter 6 A Simplified Approach to MPD

    About This Chapter

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Discussion

    6.3 A Simplified Approach

    6.4 Implementation

    6.5 Conclusion

    Questions

    References

    Answers

    Chapter 7 Mud Cap Drilling

    About This Chapter

    7.1 History of Mud Cap Drilling

    7.2 Pressurized Mud Cap

    7.3 Floating Mud Cap

    7.4 Mud Cap Operation

    7.4.1 Mud Cap Drilling

    7.4.2 Mud Cap Tripping

    7.5 Pressurized Mud Cap Operation

    7.5.1 Pressurized Mud Cap Drilling

    7.5.2 Pressurized Mud Cap Tripping

    7.6 Conclusion

    Questions

    References

    Answers

    Chapter 8 Dual-Gradient Drilling

    About This Chapter

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Problems Associated with Conventional Riser Systems in Deep Water

    8.3 AGR Riserless Mud Return System

    8.3.1 Introduction

    8.3.2 Primary Uses

    8.3.3 Equipment

    8.3.4 Operation

    8.3.5 Critical Issues

    8.3.6 Summary

    8.4 AGR Dual-Gradient System

    8.4.1 Introduction

    8.4.2 Primary Uses

    8.4.3 Equipment

    8.4.4 Operation

    8.4.5 Critical Issues

    8.4.6 Summary

    8.5 Subsea Mud-Lift Drilling System (Joint Industry Project)

    8.5.1 SMD Equipment

    8.5.2 The U-Tube Phenomenon with DGD

    8.6 Dual-Gradient Well Control

    8.6.1 Recording Prekick Information

    8.6.2 Kick Detection

    8.6.3 Dynamic Shut-in of the DGD System

    8.6.4 Kick Circulation

    8.7 Additional Comments

    8.8 Examples

    Questions

    References

    Answers

    Chapter 9 Equipment Common to MPD Operations

    About This Chapter

    9.1 Rotating Control Devices and Rotating Annular Preventers

    9.1.1 Rotating Control Devices (Passive Systems)

    9.1.2 Rotating Annular Preventors (Active Systems)

    9.1.3 Comments on the Use of Active or Passive Systems

    9.1.4 Rotating Control Devices on Risers

    9.2 Chokes

    9.2.1 Power Choke

    9.2.2 Swaco Super Choke

    9.2.3 Swaco Auto Super Choke

    9.3 Drill-Pipe Nonreturn Valves

    9.3.1 Basic Piston-Type Float

    9.3.2 Hydrostatic Control Valve

    9.3.3 Inside BOP (Pump-Down Check Valve)

    9.3.4 Retrievable NRV or Check Valve (Weatherford)

    9.4 Down-Hole Annular Valves

    9.4.1 Casing Isolation Valve

    9.4.2 Drilling Down-Hole Deployment Valve

    9.4.3 Quick Trip Valve

    9.5 ECD Reduction Tool

    9.5.1 Unique Considerations

    9.5.2 Advantages

    9.5.3 Challenges

    9.5.4 Description

    9.6 Coriolis Flowmeter

    9.7 Disc Pump (Friction Pump)

    Questions

    References

    Answers

    Chapter 10 MPD Candidate Selection

    About This Chapter

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Candidate Selection and Feasibility Study

    10.3 What is MPD Candidate Selection?

    10.4 Steps Involved in Candidate Selection

    10.4.1 Purpose of the Study

    10.4.2 Procurement of Information

    10.4.3 Hydraulic Analysis

    10.4.4 Method Selection

    10.4.5 Viability of the Option

    10.4.6 Equipment

    10.4.7 HAZOP and HAZID (Optional)

    10.5 Examples

    10.5.1 CBHP

    10.5.2 Dual-Gradient SMD

    Questions

    Answers

    Appendix A Rock Mechanics

    A.1 Stress and Strain (Elastic and Nonelastic Deformation)

    A.2 Horizontal and Vertical Rock Stress

    Appendix B Rheology

    B.1 Introduction

    B.2 Shear Stress and Shear Rate

    B.3 Newtonian Model

    B.4 Non-Newtonian Model

    B.4.1 Bingham Plastic Model

    B.4.2 Power Law Model

    B.4.3 API (Recommended Practice 13D, 2003) Model

    B.4.4 Herschel-Bulkley Model

    References

    Appendix C Useful Conversion Factors

    Appendix D IADC Well Classification System for Underbalanced Operations and Managed Pressure Drilling

    Appendix E IADC Underbalanced and Managed Pressure Drilling Guidelines-HSE Planning Guidelines

    Appendix F IADC UB and MPD Glossary

    Index

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