Long-term Ecological Change in the Northern Gulf of AlaskaBy
- R.B. Spies, Applied Marine Sciences Inc., Livermore, California, USA
This comprehensive text is a major synthesis on ecological change in the Gulf of Alaska. It encompasses the structural and annual changes, forces of change, long-ecological changes in the atmosphere and ocean, plankton, fish, birds and mammals, and the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. With 5 major sections, Long-term Ecological Change in the Northern Gulf of Alaska first describes the physical features, the atmosphere and physical oceanography, the annual production cycle, the forage base for higher animals and trophic transfer, and the adaptations for survival in this changing environment for 9 portal species. Then, the major forces of change are introduced: climate, geophysics, fisheries and harvesting, species interactions, disease and contaminants. Next, the long-term records of change in physical factors and biological populations are presented, as well as the potential reasons for the biological changes. Following is the history of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and its long-term effects. And, finally, the emergent properties of the ecosystem are discussed and an attempt is made to weigh the importance of the major forcing factors in terms of their temporal and spatial scales of influence.
Researchers in environmental and aquatic toxicology, as well as in marine ecology and biology; marine and environmental pollution and conservation agencies
Published: December 2006
"A bold, broad synthesis of current understanding of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems in the northern gulf of Alaska It is truly rare to find a synthesis that places seabird ecology within such a broad context of climatic, oceanographic and ecosystem research . The books interdisciplinary approach takes the reader to the frontier of our scientific knowledge and highlights questions and hypotheses that serve as jumping off points for future investigations and collaborations The authors write to a general audience, going to great lengths to avoid jargon and discipline-specific vocabulary and sprinkle text boxes throughout to explain specialized terms and provide additional background for non-ecologists. The book also makes liberal use of color figures and photographs that represent a refreshing contrast to the more Spartan layout of scientific publications."
- I. Introduction (R. Spies, T. Cooney).
II. Ecosystem structure.
A. Introduction (R. Spies).
B. The physical environment of the Gulf of Alaska (T. Weingartner).
C. The marine production cycle (T. Cooney).
D. The transfer of matter and energy through the food web (T. Cooney).
E. Strategies for survival.
1. Introduction (A.M. Springer).
a. Introduction (T. Cooney).
b. Pink salmon (T. Cooney).
c. Herring (T. Cooney).
d. Pollock (K. Bailey).
3. Seabirds (M. Benowitz-Fredericks, A.S. Kitaysky, A.M. Springer).
4. Marine mammals (S.J. Iverson, A.M. Springer).
5. Crabs and shrimp (G. Kruse).
III. Agents of change.
A. Introduction (R.Spies).
B. Climate (T. Weingartner).
C. Geophysical (R. Spies).
D. Species interactions (G. Kruse).
E. Marine mammal harvest and fishing (G. Kruse, A.M. Springer).
F. Disease (P. Reno).
G. Contaminants (R. Spies, S. Rice).
IV. Long-term change in the northern Gulf of Alaska.
A. Introduction (R. Spies, T. Weingartner).
B. Atmosphere and ocean (T. Weingartner).
C. Zooplankton (T. Cooney).
D. History and production trends in salmon (T. Cooney).
E. Pacific herring (E. Brown).
F. Groundfish (W. Boeing, M.H. Martin, J.T. Duffy-Anderson).
G. Seabirds (A.M. Springer).
H. Seabirds in Cook Inlet (J.F. Piatt, A.M.A. Harding).
I. Marine mammals (A.M. Springer, S.J. Iverson, J.L. Bodkin).
J. Crabs and shrimp (G. Kruse).
V. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (S. Rice, J.W. Short, M.G, Carls, A. Moles, R. Spies).
VI. Long-term changes in the Gulf of Alaska: Properties and causes (R. Spies, T. Cooney, A.M. Springer, T. Weingartner, G. Kruse).