Liquid Membranes book cover

Liquid Membranes

Principles and Applications in Chemical Separations and Wastewater Treatment

This product provides comprehensive information on liquid membrane separations, presenting the principles and applications of a variety of liquid membrane separation processes. A critical analysis of new technologies and their theoretical background is presented, as well as directions for future development.

Researchers in the area of membranes and their applications as well as chemical engineers, graduate students, consultants and other scientists working in the area of membranes, wastewater, separations, pharmaceutical and water management

Hardbound, 462 Pages

Published: September 2009

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53218-3


  • Contents

      1. Introduction, General Description, Definitions and classification. Overview.
      2. 1. Introduction

        2. General description

        3. Terminology and classification

        3.1. Classification according to module design configurations

        3.1.1. Bulk liquid membrane (BLM)

        3.1.2. Supported (SLM) or immobilized (ILM) liquid membrane

        3.1.3. The emulsion liquid membrane (ELM)

        3.2. Classification according to transport mechanisms

        3.2.1. Simple transport

        3.2.2. Facilitated or carrier-mediated transport

        3.2.3. Coupled counter- or co-transport

        3.2.4. Active transport

        3.3. Classification according to applications

        3.4. Classification according to carrier type

        3.5. Classification according to membrane support type

        4. Overview

        5. References

      3. Carrier-facilitated coupled transport through liquid membranes: general theoretical considerations and influencing factors
      4. 1. Introduction

        2. Mechanisms and kinetics of carrier-facilitated transport through liquid membranes

        2.1. Models of the LM transport

        2.2. Diffusion regime transport

        2.2.1. Mathematical descriptions of the diffusion transport

        2.2.2. Determination of diffusion coefficients

        2.3. Chemical reaction kinetics transport regime

        2.3.1. Mathematical descriptions for chemical reactions kinetics

        2.3.2. Determination of kinetic parameters Determination of α (Dimensionless parameter which relates diffusion limited transport to kinetically limited transport) Determination of Activation Energy

        2.4. Mixed diffusion-kinetic transport regime.

        2.4.1. Identification of the transport regime

        2.4.2. Basic parameters of transport regime

        2.4.3. Determination of transport parameters For BLM configurations For SLM configurations For ELM configurations

        3. Driving forces of the facilitated coupled transport

        4. Selectivity at the carrier-facilitated transport

        5. Process (module) design

        6. Parameters, affecting carrier-facilitated transport

        6.1. Carrier properties

        6.2. Solvent properties

        6.3. Membrane supports

        6.4. Coupling ions. Anion Type

        6.5. Influence of polarization and fouling

        6.6. Influence of temperature

        7. Summary: liquid membrane – hybrid technology, based on combination of several techniques

        8. References

      5. Supported liquid membranes and their modifications. Definition, classification, theory, stability, application and perspectives
      6. 1. Introduction

        2. Supported liquid membrane separation technique – the principle

        3. Transport mechanisms and kinetics

        3.1. Driving force and transport mechanisms

        3.1.1. Simple permeation

        3.1.2. Carrier-mediated (facilitated) transport

        3.2. Product recovery and enrichment

        4. Selectivity

        4.1. Transport selectivity

        4.1.1. Selectivity of the simple permeation process

        4.1.2. Selectivity of carrier-mediated transport

        4.2. Immunological trapping

        4.3. Stereoselectivity

        5. Process and membrane units design

        5.1. Commonly used supports

        5.1.1. Polymeric support

        5.1.2. Inorganic support

        5.2. Organic solvents used in SLM

        5.3. Ionic liquids as membrane phase

        5.4. Membrane units (module design)

        6. Membrane stability

        6.1. Factors influencing membrane stability

        6.2. Degradation mechanisms

        6.3. Improving SLM stability

        6.4. Gel SLM

        6.5. Polymer inclusion membranes

        6.6. Integration of SLM with other membrane processes

        7. Supported liquid membranes application

        7.1. Analytical applications

        7.2. Applications of supported liquid membrane technique in biotechnology and environmental science

        7.3. Separation of stereoisomers

        8. Future perspectives

        9. Nomenclature

        10. Abbreviations

        11. References

      7. Emulsion liquid membranes: definitions and classification, theories, module design, applications, new directions and perspectives
      8. 1. Introduction and Definitions

        1.1 Description of Liquid Membranes

        2. Mechanisms of Mass Transport in Liquid Membranes

        2.1 Simple permeation mechanism

        2.2 Facilitated transport mechanism

        3. Modeling of Liquid Membranes

        3.1 Film Models for Liquid Membrane Separations

        3.2 Distributed Resistance Models for Liquid Membrane Separations

        3.2.1 Advancing Front Model

        3.2.2 Reversible Reaction Model

        3.3 Equilibrium extraction correlation

        3.4 Advanced stripping model

        3.5 Models for Continuous Operations

        3.5.1 Multistage Mixer Settler Operations

        3.5.2 Column Type Operations

        4. ELM design considerations

        4.1 Operational aspects in emulsion liquid membranes

        4.2 Preparation of emulsion liquid membranes

        4.3 Emulsification and surfactants

        4.4 Stripping agents

        4.5 Extractant agents

        4.6 Demulsification

        4.7 Various parameters affecting extraction rate/permeability

        4.7.1 Membrane thickness and its composition

        4.7.2 Stirring rate

        4.7.3 Feed phase solute concentration

        4.7.4 Feed phase pH

        4.7.5 Volume ratio of emulsion to external phase (treat ratio)

        4.7.6 Internal stripping reagent concentration and the volume fraction of the internal phase

        4.7.7 Temperature

        4.8 Hydrodynamics of liquid membranes

        4.9 Leakage and Stability in emulsion liquid membranes

        4.10 Internal droplet size distribution

        5. Applications of ELM technology

        5.1 Metal Ion Extraction

        5.2 Removal of Weak Acids/Bases

        5.3 Separation of Inorganic Species

        5.4 Hydrocarbon Separations

        5.5 Biochemical and Biomedical Applications

        5.6 Preparation of Fine Particles using Emulsion Liquid Membrane

        6. Liquid Membrane Industrial Plant

        6.1 Zinc removal

        6.2 Phenol removal

        6.3 Cyanide removal

        7.0 Summary

        7.1 Advantages

        7.2 Disadvantages

        8.0 Future prospects


      9. Bulk hybrid liquid membrane processes with organic water-immiscible carriers (BOHLM). Application in chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical and gas separations
      10. 1. Introduction and Definitions

        2. Theory: Mass Transfer Mechanisms and Kinetics

        2.1. Model for the HLM system

        2.1.1. Mass transfer mechanisms and kinetics

        2.1.2. Driving forces

        2.2. Numerical model of competitive M2+/H+ counter-transport

        2.3. The theory of hollow-fiber liquid membrane (HFLM) transport

        3. Module Design for Separations

        3.1. Preliminary design and optimization

        3.1.1. Determination and optimization of the transport rate parameters

        3.1.2. Determination of the selectivity parameters

        3.2. Membrane types used as a barrier

        3.3. Carrier types used

        3.4. Examples of the BOHLM systems

        3.4.1. Layered bulk liquid membrane modules

        3.4.2. Rotating disc modules

        3.4.3. Creeping film modules

        3.4.4. Hybrid liquid membrane (HLM) modules

        3.4.5. Multimembrane hybrid systems (MHS)

        3.4.6. Flowing liquid membrane (FLM) modules

        3.4.7. Hollow-fiber liquid membrane (HFLM) modules

        3.4.8. Capillary liquid membrane modules

        3.4.9. Membrane-based or nondispersive solvent extraction systems

        4. Selected Applications

        4.1. Metal separation-concentration

        4.2. Biotechnological products recovery-separation

        4.3. Pharmaceutical products recovery-separation

        4.4. Organic compounds separation, organic pollutants recovery at wastewaters treatment

        4.5. Gas separations

        4.6. Fermentation or enzymatic conversion-recovery-separation (bioreactors)

        4.7. Analytical applications

        5. Summary Remarks

        6. Nomenclature



      11. Bulk hybrid liquid membrane processes with water-soluble (BAHLM) carriers. Application in chemical and biochemical separations
      12. 1. Introduction and Definitions

        2. Theoretical Considerations

        2.1. Background

        2.2. Mass Transfer Mechanisms and Kinetics

        3. Module Design Considerations

        3.1. Module design

        3.1.1. Kinetic parameters determination and preliminary optimization

        3.1.2. Evaluation of selectivity

        3.2. Polyelectrolytes as carriers in aqueous solutions

        3.3. Ion-exchange membranes as a barrier

        3.4. Anomalous osmosis: ion exchange membranes, polyelectrolytes and osmosis

        3.5. Example of preliminary evaluation of the BAHLM system

        4. Selected Applications

        4.1. Metal ions, salts separation

        4.1.1. Separation with flat sheet ion exchange membranes as barriers

        4.1.2. Separation with neutral hollow fiber units

        4.2. Biotechnological separations: carboxylic acids

        4.3. Isomer separation by LM with water-soluble polymers

        4.3.1. Separation by Hollow-fiber contained liquid membrane permeator (HFCLMP)

        4.3.2. Separation by Supported liquid membrane (SLM)

        4.4. Carrier leakage

        4.5. Membrane lifetime

        5. Potential applications

        6. Summary Remarks

        7. References

      13. Liquid Membrane in gas separations

    1. Introduction
    2. Theory
    3. Modules and design
    4. Stabilisation of supported liquid membranes and novel configurations
    5. Gas separation applications
      1. 5.1 Production of oxygen-enriched air
      2. 5.2 Carbon dioxide separation from various gas streams
      3. 5.3 Olefin separation
      4. 5.4 Sulphur Dioxide separation from various gas streams
      5. 5.5 Hydrogen separation

    6. Conclusion and outlook
    7. References


    1. Application of liquid membranes in wastewater treatment
    2. 1. Introduction

      2. Two-phase partitioning bioreactors

      2.1. General description

      2.2. Selection of the diluent

      2.2.1. Biocompatibility

      2.2.2. Bioavailability

      2.2.3 Other criteria

      2.3. Laboratory studies

      2.4 Biodegradation mechanisms

      2.5. Challenges to industrial applications

      2.6. Industrial applications

      2.7. Potential future developments

      3. Other applications of the BLMs

      4. Emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs)

      4.1. General description

      4.2. Removal of metals from wastewater using ELMs

      4.2.1. Laboratory studies

      4.2.2. Industrial applications and future trends

      4.3. Removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters using ELMs

      4.3.1. Laboratory studies

      4.3.2 Industrial applications and future trends

      5. Supported liquid membranes (SLMs)

      5.1 General description

      5.2. Removal of metals from wastewater using SLMs

      5.2.1. Laboratory studies

      5.2.2. Industrial applications and future trends

      5.3. Removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters using SLMs

      5.3.1. Laboratory studies

      5.3.2. Industrial applications and future trends

      6. Polymer inclusion membranes

      7. References

    3. Progress in liquid membrane science and engineering

    1. Introduction

    2. Fundamental studies in LM science and engineering

    3. Potential advances in SLM and selective membrane supports production technologies

    3.1. Facilitating membrane structures

    3.2. Affinity SLM structures

    3.3. New permselective materials

    3.4. Improved thin barrier multilayer laminates

    3.5. Electrochemically-driven techniques (fuel cells) utilizing permselective membranes

    4. Catalytic membrane reactors

    4.1. Immobilized catalytic membrane reactors

    4.2. Electrochemical/catalytic membrane processes

    5. Membrane-based gas separation

    6. Advances in the ELM

    6.1. Reversed-micellar separation

    6.2. Integrated LM processes

    7. Advances in the BOHLM systems

    7.1. Separation by membrane solvent extraction

    8. Potential advances in the BAHLM system applications

    8.1. Drug separation from biochemical mixtures

    8.2. BAHLM reactors: fermentation, catalysis and separation with enrichment of valuable compounds

    8.3. Desalination of wastewater and sea water

    8.4. Integrated water-soluble complexing/ filtration techniques

    9. Potential directions in reducing concentration polarization and fouling

    9.1. Manipulations with flow

    9.2. High shear devices

    9.2.1. Rotating systems

    9.2.2. Vibratory Hollow Fiber Membranes

    9.2.3. Enhancement by gas bubbles

    9.3. Electric field enhancement

    9.4. Ultrasound enhancement

    10. Perspectives in membrane technology applications



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