Learning Radiology book cover

Learning Radiology

Recognizing the Basics (With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access)

Learning Radiology: Recognizing the Basics, 2nd Edition, is an image-filled, practical, and clinical introduction to this integral part of the diagnostic process. William Herring, MD, a skilled radiology teacher, masterfully covers everything you need to know to effectively interpret medical images. Learn the latest on ultrasound, MRI, CT, and more, in a time-friendly format with brief, bulleted text and abundant high-quality images. Then ensure your mastery of the material with additional online content, bonus images, and self-assessment exercises at www.studentconsult.com.

Audience

Medical students in years 3 & 4 taking their clinical rotation/rotation, residents in radiology, nurse practitioners and physician assistants

Paperback, 333 Pages

Published: April 2011

Imprint: Saunders

ISBN: 978-0-323-07444-5

Contents

  • 1. Recognizing Anything: An Introduction to Imaging Modalities

    Let There be Light . . . and Dark, and Shades of Gray

    Conventional Radiography (Plain Films)

    Computed Tomography (CT or CAT Scans)

    Ultrasound (US)

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    Terminology

    The Best System is the One That Works

    Conventions Used in This Book

    2. Recognizing Normal Chest Anatomy and a Technically Adequate Chest Radiograph

    The Normal Frontal Chest Radiograph

    The Lateral Chest Radiograph

    Five Key Areas on the Lateral Chest X-Ray

    Evaluating the Chest Radiograph for Technical Adequacy

    3. Recognizing Airspace Versus Interstitial Lung Disease

    Classifying Parenchymal Lung Disease

    Characteristics of Airspace Disease

    Some Causes of Airspace Disease

    Characteristics of Interstitial Lung Disease

    Some Causes of Interstitial Lung Disease

    4. Recognizing the Causes of an Opacified Hemithorax

    Atelectasis of the Entire Lung

    Massive Pleural Effusion

    Pneumonia of an Entire Lung

    Post-Pneumonectomy

    5. Recognizing Atelectasis

    What is Atelectasis

    Signs of Atelectasis

    Types of Atelectasis

    Patterns of Collapse in Lobar Atelectasis

    How Atelectasis Resolves

    6. Recognizing a Pleural Effusion

    Normal Anatomy and Physiology of the Pleural Space

    Causes of Pleural Effusions

    Types of Pleural Effusions

    Side Specificity of Pleural Effusions

    Recognizing the Different Appearances of Pleural Effusions

    7. Recognizing Pneumonia

    General Considerations

    General Characteristics of Pneumonia

    Patterns of Pneumonia

    Aspiration

    Localizing Pneumonia

    How Pneumonia Resolves

    8. Recognizing Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pneumopericardium, and Subcutaneous Emphysema

    Recognizing a Pneumothorax

    Recognizing the Pitfalls in Overdiagnosing a Pneumothorax

    Types of Pneumothoraces

    Causes of a Pneumothorax

    Other Ways to Diagnose a Pneumothorax

    Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema

    Recognizing Pneumomediastinum

    Recognizing Pneumopericardium

    Recognizing Subcutaneous Emphysema

    9. Recognizing Adult Heart Disease

    Recognizing an Enlarged Cardiac Silhouette

    Pericardial Effusion

    Extracardiac Causes of Apparent Cardiac Enlargement

    Effect of Projection of Perception of Heart Size

    Identifying Cardiac Enlargement on an Anteroposterior Chest Radiograph

    Recognizing Cardiomegaly on the Lateral Chest Radiograph

    Recognizing Cardiomegaly in Infants

    Normal Cardiac Contours

    Normal Pulmonary Vasculature

    General Principles of Cardiac Imaging

    Recognizing Common Cardiac Diseases

    10. Recognizing the Correct Placement of Lines and Tubes: Critical Care Radiology

    Endotracheal and Tracheostomy Tubes

    Intravascular Catheters

    Pulmonary Drainage Tubes (Chest Tubes, Thoracotomy Tubes)

    Cardiac Devices

    Gastrointestinal Tubes and Lines

    11. Computed Tomography: Understanding the Principles and Recognizing Normal Anatomy

    Introduction to CT

    Intravenous Contrast in CT Scanning

    Oral Contrast in CT Scanning

    Normal Chest CT Anatomy

    Cardiac CT

    Abdominal CT

    12. Recognizing Diseases of the Chest

    Mediastinal Masses

    Anterior Mediastinum

    Middle Mediastinum

    Posterior Mediastinum

    Solitary Nodule/Mass in the Lung

    Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    Metastatic Neoplasms in the Lung

    Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Blebs and Bullae,Cysts and Cavities

    Bronchiectasis

    13. Recognizing the Normal Abdomen: Conventional Radiographs

    What to Look For

    Normal Bowel Gas Pattern

    Normal Fluid Levels

    Differentiating Large from Small Bowel

    Acute Abdominal Series: The Views and What They Show

    Calcifications

    Organomegaly

    14. Recognizing Bowel Obstruction and Ileus

    Abnormal Gas Patterns

    Laws of the Gut

    Functional Ileus: Localized Sentinal Loops

    Functional Ileus: Generalized Adynamic Ileus

    Mechanical Obstruction: Small Bowel Obstruction

    Mechanical Obstruction: Large Bowel Obstruction

    Volvulus of the Colon

    Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie’s Syndrome)

    15. Recognizing Extraluminal Air in the Abdomen

    Signs of Free Intraperitoneal Air

    Causes of Free Air

    Signs of Extraperitoneal Air (Retroperitoneal Air)

    Causes of Extraperitoneal Air

    Signs of Air in the Bowel Wall

    Causes and Significance of Air in the Bowel Wall

    Signs of Air in the Biliary System

    Causes of Air in the Biliary System

    16. Recognizing Abnormal Calcifications and Their Causes

    Patterns of Calcification

    Rim-like Calcification

    Linear or Track-like Calcification

    Lamellar or Laminar Calcification

    Cloudlike, Amorphous, or Popcorn Calcification

    Location of Calcification

    17. Recognizing the Imaging Findings of Trauma

    Chest Trauma

    Aortic Trauma

    Abdominial Trauma

    Pelvic Trauma

    18. Recognizing Gastrointestinal, Hepatic, and Urinary Tract Abnormalities

    Barium Studies of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Esophagus

    Stomach and Duodenum

    Small and Large Bowel

    Pancreas

    Hepatobiliary Abnormalities

    Urinary Tract

    Pelvis

    Urinary Bladder

    Terminology

    Common Principles for All Gastrointestinal Barium Studies

    19. Ultrasound: Understanding the Principles and Recognizing Normal and Abnormal Findings

    How it Works

    Doppler Ultrasonography

    Adverse Effects and Safety Issues

    Medical Uses of Ultrasonography

    Biliary System

    Urinary Tract

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Female Pelvic Organs

    Appendicitis

    Pregnancy

    Vascular Ultrasound

    Deep Venous Thrombosis

    20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Understanding the Principles and Recognizing the Basics

    How MRI Works

    Hardware that Makes Up an MRI Scanner

    What Happens Once Scanning Begins

    Pulse Sequences

    Identifying a T1- or T2-Weighted Image

    MRI Contrast: General Considerations

    MRI Safety Issues

    Diagnostic Applications of MRI

    21. Recognizing Abnormalities of Bone Density

    Normal Bone Anatomy

    The Effect of Bone Physiology on Bone Anatomy

    Recognizing a Generalized Increase in Bone Density

    Recognizing a Focal Increase in Bone Density

    Recognizing a Generalized Decrease in Bone Density

    Recognizing a Focal Decrease in Bone Density

    Pathologic Fractures

    22. Recognizing Fractures and Dislocations

    Recognizing an Acute Fracture

    Recognizing Dislocations and Subluxtions

    Describing Fractures

    Avulsion Fractures

    Salter-Harris Fractures: Epiphyseal Plate Fractures in Children

    Child Abuse

    Stress Fractures

    Common Fracture Eponyms

    Some Easily Missed Fractures or Dislocations

    Fracture Healing

    23. Recognizing Joint Disease: An Approach to Arthritis

    Anatomy of a Joint

    Classification of Arthritis

    Hypertrophic Arthritis

    Erosive Arthritis

    Infectious Arthritis

    24. Recognizing Some Common Causes of Back and Neck Pain

    Conventional Radiology, MRI, and CT

    The Normal Spine

    Back Pain

    Herniated Disks

    Degenerative Disk Disease

    Osteoarthritis of the Facet Joints

    Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    Compression Fractures of the Spine

    Spondylolisthesis and Spondylolysis

    Spinal Stenosis

    Malignancy Involving the Spine

    MRI in Metastatic Spine Disease

    Infections of the Spine: Diskitis and Osteomyelitis

    Spinal Trauma

    25. Recognizing Some Common Causes of Intracranial Pathology

    Normal Anatomy

    MRI and the Brain

    Head Trauma

    Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Diffuse Axonal Injury

    Increased Intracranial Pressure

    Stroke

    Ruptured Aneurysms

    Hydrocephalus

    Cerebral Atrophy

    Brain Tumors

    Multiple Sclerosis

    Terminology

    Appendix: Recognizing What to Order

    Bibliography

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