Leak Prevention and Corrective Action Technology for Underground Storage Tanks
- A.C. Gangadharan, Foster-Wheeler Corporation, IL, USA
A guide to the entire process of installing and managing underground storage tanks, with a focus on preventing leaks, and what to do if a leak occurs.View full description
Engineers, designers and managers of underground storage tanks.
- Published: December 1988
- Imprint: WILLIAM ANDREW
- ISBN: 978-0-8155-1163-2
Table of ContentsPart I Ã» Leak Prevention1. Introduction Background Factors Affecting Leak Prevention2. Conclusions3. Recommendations4. Description of Underground Storage Tank Systems Tanks Piping Accessories Secondary Containment Discussion5. Design and Engineering Practices Properties of Products Mechanical Forces Corrosion Materials of Construction Codes and Standards State and Local Regulations Discussion6. Installation Techniques Tank Installation Secondary Containment System Installation Piping and Accessories Installation Discussion7. Operating Practices and Guidelines Overfill Prevention Transfer Spill Prevention Vapor Recovery Systems Leak Detection Discussion8. Corrective Actions Inspection Maintenance and Repair Retrofitting Tank System Closure DiscussionReferencesAppendix: Corrosion Prevention Corrosion Processes Factors That Affect External Corrosion in USTS Internal Corrosion Factors Corrosion PreventionReferencesPart II Ã» Corrective Action Technology1. Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Objective2. Underground Storage Tank Design 2.1 Types of Underground Storage Tanks 2.2 Failure Modes3. Leak Detection and Environmental Assessment 3.1 Tank Monitoring 3.2 Contaminant Migration (Transport) Pathways 3.3 Initial Assessment of Extent of Release4. Corrective Action Response Process 4.1 Initial Corrective-Action Options 4.2 Permanent Corrective-Action Options 4.3 Risk Analysis5. Technology Profiles 5.1 Tank Removal, Abandonment, and Rehabilitation Removal/Excavation of Soil and Sediments 5.2 Onsite and Offsite Treatment and Disposal of Contaminants 5.3 Free Product Recovery 5.4 Ground-Water Recovery Systems 5.5 Subsurface Barriers 5.6 In Situ Treatment 5.7 Ground-Water Treatment 5.8 Vapor Migration Control, Collection and Treatment 5.9 Surface Water/Drainage Controls (EPA 1985a) 5.10 Restoration of Contaminated Water Supplies and Utility/Sewer Lines (EPA 1985a)6. Reference Matrix For Case Histories 6.1 Purpose of Case Histories 6.2 Case History MatrixReferencesAppendix: Case Histories A.1 Case History A Ã» Gasoline Pipeline, Glendale, California A.2 Case History B Ã» Gasoline Pipeline, Ambler, Pennsylvania A.3 Case History C Ã» Retail Gasoline Station, Genesee County, Michigan A.4 Case History D Ã» Retail Gasoline Station, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania A.5 Case History E Ã» U.S. Coast Guard Air Station, Traverse City, Michigan A.6 Case History F Ã» Bulk Fuel Storage and Distribution Center A.7 Case History G Ã» Midwestern Laboratory Facility A.8 Case History H Ã» Chemical Pipeline A.9 Case History I Ã» Biocraft Laboratories, Waldwick, New Jersey A.10 Case History J Ã» Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp., South San Jose, CaliforniaPart III Ã» In Situ Biorestoration1. Introduction A. Importance of Ground Water Protection B. Universal Impact of Leaking Underground Storage Tanks C. Definition Ã» Underground Storage Tanks (RCRA) D. Available Remedial Action Technology E. Subsurface Effects on Contaminant Mobility2. Remedial/Restoration Plume Management Techniques A. Physical Containment B. Hydrodynamic Controls C. Withdrawal and Treatment D. In Situ Physical and Chemical Treatment E. In Situ Biological Treatment F. Hydrologic Considerations and Mathematical Modeling of Biorestoration3. Institutional Limitations on Ground Water Pollution Control A. Scientific Understanding of the Nature of Released Products from Leaking Underground Storage Tanks B. Public Opinion C. Business Community Attitudes D. Environmental Interest Groups E. Government Agencies4. Research Needs for Optimized Remedial Techniques A. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Physical Containment Techniques B. Enhanced Vadose Zone Pollutant Removal Techniques C. Enhancement of Microbial PopulationsReferences