Job Hazard Analysis
A guide for voluntary compliance and beyondBy
- James Roughton, Certified Safety Professional (CSP); Canadian Registered Safety Professional (CRSP); Certified Hazardous Materials Manager (CHMM); MS in Safety Science; Past President of the Georgia Chapter of ASSE, Independent consultant, U.S.A. Past President of the Georgia Chapter of ASSE; Safety Professional of the Year in 1998-1999.
- Nathan Crutchfield, Masters degree in Business Administration, Georgia State University; Bachelor of Civil Engineering Technology, Southern Technical Institute (now Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta, Georgia). Professional designations and affiliations: CSP (Certified Safety Professional); ARM (Associate in Risk Management; CPCU (Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriter); ARP (Associate in Research & Planning); Society of Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters, American Society of Safety Engineers (Professional Member); American Society of Training and Development., Crutchfield Consulting, risk management consultants, U.S.A.
A Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) identifies the basic job steps and tasks and their associated hazards and risks, and then develops safe operating procedures and hazard controls based on this analysis. In this book, James Roughton and Nathan Crutchfield argue that the JHA should be the centrepiece of any risk control and occupational safety and health program and a methodical analysis is required for the new American safety and health management standard ANSI/AIHA Z10. However, the traditional JHA has potential problems in gathering and analysis of task data and, with its focus on the sequence of steps, can miss the behavioral effects and the systems interactions between tools, equipment, materials, work environment, management and the individual worker. The authors present a new and improved concept for the JHA incorporating elements from Behavior-Based Safety and Six Sigma. They take the reader through the whole process of developing tools for identifying workplace hazards, developing systems that support hazard recognition, developing an effective JHA, and managing a JHA based program and fitting it into occupational safety and health management systems, allowing businesses to move from mere compliance to a pro-active safety management. The book is supported by numerous examples of JHAs, end of chapter review questions, sample checklists, action plans and forms.
Safety and Health professionals in all industries; supervisors, senior managers and HR professionals with responsibility for safety and health. Loss control and insurance professionals. Lecturers and students on occupational safety and health courses - vocational and degree courses at community colleges and universities.
Hardbound, 520 Pages
Published: October 2007
Imprint: Butterworth Heinemann
- IntroductionWhy Do You Need This Book?The Value of the JHAWhat Is A Job Hazard Analysis?What is in this Book? Connecting the DotsPart 1, Developing a Toolkit for Identifying Workplace Risk and Hazards Chapter 1, Preparing for the Risk and Hazard AssessmentThe Centerpiece of a Safety ProcessHazard Recognition and Control SystemsConducting a Risk Assessment of the WorkplacePrioritizing the Risk Assessment FindingsDeveloping Solutions to Resolve Risk-Related Issues Recommending and Implementing ControlsMonitoring the ResultsDeveloping a System to Identify and Report HazardsCompany Safety PolicyInvolving Employees in the JHA ProcessProtecting Employees from HarassmentIdentifying Workplace HazardsEmployee Reporting SystemsVerbal ReportsSuggestion ProgramsHazard Card ProgramHazard Wanted ProgramA Word of Caution With Regard to Hazard ReportingMaintenance Work OrdersForms Used to Report HazardsAction PlanningTracking Hazards Tracking by CommitteeFollow-up ReviewsCodes of Safe Work PracticesSummaryReview Chapter QuestionsReferencesAppendix A Sample Guidance in Writing a Complete StatementSample Policy Safety StatementsB Sample Forms for Employee Reporting Of HazardsTracking Hazard CorrectionsFollow-Up DocumentationC Action PlanningThree Sample Versions are IncludedD Codes of Safe PracticesChapter 2, Workplace Hazard Analysis and Review of Associated Risk ObjectiveAnalysis of the Workplace SystemInspections and AuditsThe ChecklistConsultant and Outside SpecialistEmployee InterviewsTypes of InspectionsGeneral Walk-Around InspectionsVerification ReviewsFocus ReviewsSelf-AssessmentDocument ReviewGeneral Walk-Around InspectionsVerification ReviewsFocus ReviewsSelf-AssessmentDocument ReviewWritten Inspection ReportsWho Should Review the Workplace?SupervisorsEmployeesSafety ProfessionalsPreventive Maintenance ProgramsOther Things to Consider during a Site InspectionIncident InvestigationsTrend AnalysisSummaryReview Chapter QuestionsReferencesAppendix E Self-Inspection ChecklistsChapter 3, Developing Systems to Manage HazardsHierarchy of ControlsWhy Engineering Controls?Administrative ControlPPEPPE LimitationsPPE Hazard AssessmentWork Practices and Safety RulesGeneral Safety RulesLimitations of Work Practices and Safety RulesChange AnalysisA Change in the ProcessBuilding or Leasing a New FacilityNew Equipment InstallationUsing New MaterialsEmployee ChangesAdapting to Change Other Analytical Tools for Consideration: SummaryReview Chapter QuestionsReferences Appendix F Sample Safety RulesG PPE Assessment Guidelines for complying with PPE requirements Hazard Assessment for PPE, Option 1 Job Hazard Analysis Assessment for PPE, Option 2 Example Personal Protective Equipment Training Certification Form Example Personal Protective Equipment Training Quiz, (RECOMMENDED) Sample PPE Policies, INSTRUCTIONSH Safety Review of New/Relocated Equipment Major Modification Sign-Off Form I Other Analytical Tools for Consideration Part 2, Developing Systems that Support Hazard RecognitionChapter 4, Understanding the Human Role in the Safety ProcessHow are At-Risk Events Developed?What Contributes to an At-Risk Event?The Feedback LoopBehavior ApproachChanging BehaviorUnderstanding Why Employees Put Themselves at RiskUnderstanding the Other Side of SafetyBenefits of Behavior-Based SafetyBehavior-Based Safety and Integrated Safety Management FunctionsSeven Guiding Principles of Integrated Safety ManagementFive Core Functions of Integrated Safety ManagementWill a BBS Process Work for you?SummaryChapter Review QuestionsReferencesAppendix J Sample Behavior (At-Risk Events) ListChapter 5, Effective Use of Employee ParticipationWhy Should Employees Be Involved?Involving Employees in the Safety Management SystemClose Contact with HazardsImproved SupportMore Participation More AwarenessHawthorne StudiesCommittee ParticipationGetting Employee Participation StartedForm a CommitteeHow to involve Employees in the ProcessJoint Labor-Management CommitteesOther Joint CommitteesEmployee Safety CommitteesCentral Safety CommitteeFunction-Specific CommitteesAreas of Employee ParticipationConducting Site InspectionsRoutine Hazard AnalysisDeveloping or Revising Site-Specific Safety RulesTraining Other EmployeesEmployee OrientationDifferent Approaches: Union and Non-Union SitesUnionized Work SitesNon-Union Work SitesForms of Employee ParticipationWhat Can Management Must DoSummaryChapter Review QuestionsReferencesAppendix K Example of a Committee Team CharterChapter 6, Defining Associated RiskRisk Management General Risk Management Theories and ModelsPeople (Employees)The EnvironmentTools/Equipment/MaterialsPolicies, Procedures, and Management ConsiderationsJob Steps and Task ConsiderationsThe System Engineering ModelRisk versus BenefitRisk Management CommunicationRisk Management ResponsibilitiesSupervision ResponsibilitiesEmployees ResponsibilitiesRisk AssessmentClassification and Ranking HazardsRisk versus OpportunitySafety Significance What Does Success Look Like?SummaryChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 7, Assessing Safety and Health Training NeedsHow is a Good Trainer Defined?Basic Training PrinciplesTypes of Safety EducationGeneral Safety Instruction How to Conduct Safety TrainingTraining Plan Linked To ConsequencesNatural consequencesSystem consequencesSteps in the Course Development Process Conducting a Training Needs AnalysisDeveloping Learning ActivitiesEstablishing Learning ObjectivesGuidelines for Writing Learning Objectives Components of Learning Objectives Target Audience Audience Analysis Behavior Types of Behavior in Learning Objectives Cognitive behaviorsKnowledge-level cognitive behaviorsComprehension-level cognitive behaviorsApplication-level cognitive behaviorsProblem-solving cognitive behaviorsPsychomotor Behaviors Affective Behaviors Learning Styles Conditions Course Content DevelopmentDelivering Effective Safety Training Safety Program Evaluation Level 1: Measuring Employees ReactionLevel 2: Measures KSA's in the Learning EnvironmentLevel 3: Evaluates the application of KSA's in the Work EnvironmentLevel 4: Evaluates how training has impacted productivityLevel 5: Evaluates how training has impacted profitsRecordkeepingOther Effective TrainingBlues Clues Training TechniquesImproved Self-Esteem?SummaryReview Chapter QuestionsReferencesAppendix L Sample, Safety and Health Training Policy, ANSI Guidelines for Evaluating Training Programs Sample Safety Training Program Audit Sample Training CertificationPart 3- Developing an Effective Job Hazard AnalysisChapter 8, Planning for the Job Hazard AnalysisWhere do I begin? Regaining the Feel of the WorkplaceConducting the JHAWhy is a JHA Important?Benefits of Developing JHA'sDrawbacks of a JHAWhy Is It Important to Get Employees Involved in the Process?Selecting a TeamHow do I know that A JHA will Work For Me?Defining the JHASelecting the Jobs for Analysis Non-Routine TasksSummaryReview Chapter QuestionsReferencesAppendix M Description of Common HazardsChapter 9, Breaking the Job Down Into Individual ComponentsBasic Steps in the JHA Development ProcessTasks DefinedUsing a ChecklistMethods for Breaking down the Job into Steps and TasksDiscussion MethodObservation MethodWhat Tools can be used to enhance the JHA Process?Cameras and Video EquipmentDrawings and SketchesCant See the Forest for the TreesSummaryReview Chapter QuestionsReferencesAppendixN Sample Facility ChecklistChapter 10, Putting together the Puzzle PiecesCompleting the JHA Form The HeaderJob DescriptionDepartmentDate DevelopedPage NumberingPerformed byApprovalsPPEBody of JHAJob Steps and Task-Specific DescriptionRisk AssessmentExisting and Potential Hazards and Consequences of ExposureAt-Risk Events and Preventative MeasuresPreventative MeasuresEliminate the hazard. SubstituteEngineeringContain the hazardAdministrative ControlsRevise work proceduresPersonal Protective Equipment (PPE)Reduce the exposureResidual RiskBenefit review, Getting the Biggest Bang for the BuckOkay, I have completed the JHA, Now What!Review JHAs until Employee Understands Hazards of JobRevising the JHASummaryReview Chapter QuestionsReferencesAppendix O Sample instructions on how to change a tire on a car. Sample Job Hazard Analysis Pre-Hazard Assessment Worksheet JHA on Changing a Tire JHA on Changing a Tire, Annotated Comparison JHA on Changing a Tire, Traditional vs. New Version Job Hazard Analysis, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety (CCOHS)Chapter 11, Standard or Safe Operating Procedures (SOP)How Far is far enough? Why develop an SOP?Elements of an SOPSummaryReview Chapter QuestionsAppendix P Standard Operating Procedure for Changing a Tire Send New Updated FilePart 4, Additional Tools That Can Be Used To Develop A Successful JHAChapter 12, Overview of a Safety Management ProcessProcess ElementsWhat are the Voluntary Protection Programs? How does VPP work?How does VPP help employers and employees?Management Commitment and LeadershipEmployee participationHazard Identification and AssessmentHazard Prevention and Control)Education and TrainingEmployee TrainingManagement TrainingEvaluation of Process EffectivenessThe Nature of All Safety SystemsIndicators and MeasuresAssessment TechniquesMulti-Employer WorkplaceEmployee RightsHealing a Sick SystemThe PDSA CycleVoluntary Protection ProgramSummaryReview Chapter QuestionsReferencesAppendix NoneChapter 13, Six Sigma as a Management System: A Tool for Effectively Managing a JHA ProcessSix Sigma ExposedThe BeginningWhat Does Process Improvement Mean? What Does Process Improvement Look Like? Benefits of Improving a ProcessImproving the Process Using the Six Sigma MethodologyA Basic Six Sigma Process Improvement Model DMAIC MethodologyDefining the ProjectMeasuring the ProjectAnalyzing the ProjectImproving the ProjectControlling the ProjectDefine Phase Step 1, Define the Scope of the Project.Selecting the Process Step 2, Developing a Problem StatementStep 3, Define the Appropriate MetricStep 4, Develop Objective StatementStep 5, Select and Organize the Right Team.Measure Phase Step 6, Develop a Macro Map of Current ProcessStep 7, Define the project with Pareto charts, XY matrix, etc.Analyze PhaseStep 9, Tool Use (Process Flow, XY Matrix, Gauge Studies, Fishbone, FMEA)Step 10, Identify Root Cause(s) for lack of Capability Using Specific Analysis TechniquesImprove Phase Step 11, Design and Conduct Experiment, as applicableStep 12, Defining the Y= f(x) of the ProcessControl PhaseStep 13, Optimizing and Redefining SolutionsStep 14, Control Critical Xs and Monitor YsStep 15, Verify the Change and Collect Data Key areas of Six Sigma Six Sigma levels Investing in Prevention Pay off!!Positive Changes to Corporate Culture SummaryReview Chapter QuestionsReferencesAppendix Q Cause and Effect MatrixProcess Flow Diagram of Changing a Tire based on XY Matrix (Simplified)List the Inputs (Ys) to the Process XY Matrix for Assessing Job Steps and TaskList the Inputs (Ys) to the Process XY Matrix and Assign RankingList the process Job steps and inputs (Job Task) XY Matrix for Assessing Job Steps and TaskRank the inputs according to their effect on each output XY MatrixXY Matrix for Assessing Job Steps and Task, Identify the critical inputs from the totals columnFinal Words, Can You Develop a Culture that Will Sustain Itself?Taking a Closer Look at RealityReferenceAppendix R OSHA Regional OfficesGlossarySolutions to Chapter Questions