IP Addressing & Subnetting INC IPV6 book cover

IP Addressing & Subnetting INC IPV6

Including IPv6

Internetworking Protocol (IP) addresses are the unique numeric identifiers required of every device connected to the Internet. They allow for the precise routing of data across very complex worldwide internetworks. The rules for their format and use are governed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) of the The Internet SOCiety (ISOC). In response to the exponential increase in demand for new IP addresses, the IETF has finalized its revision on IP addressing as IP Version 6, also know as IPng (ng = Next Generation). Key hardware vendors such as Cisco and major Internet Service Providers such as America Online have already announced plans to migrate to IP Version 6.IP address allocation within an organization requires a lot of long-term planning. This timely publication addresses the administrator and engineer's need to know how IP 6 impacts their enterprise networks

Paperback, 529 Pages

Published: January 2000

Imprint: Syngress

ISBN: 978-1-928994-01-5

Contents


  • Preface

    Why this Book is Necessary

    Contents of this Book

    Editor's Acknowledgment

    Chapter 1 Addressing and Subnetting Basic

    IP Address Basic

    Classful Addressing-Structure an Size of Each Type

    Address Assignment

    Examples

    The Purpose of Subnetting

    The BasicFixed-Length Max

    What the Mask Does

    Components of a Mask

    Binary Determination of Mask Values

    Decimal Equivalent Mask Values

    Creating Mask for Various Networking Problems

    Addresses and Mask Interaction

    Reserved and Restricted Address

    Determining the range of Addresses within Subnets

    Determining Subnet Addresses Given a Single Address and Mask

    Interpreting Masks

    Reserved Addresses

    Summary

    FAQs

    Chapter 2 Creating an Addressing Plan for Fixed-Length Mask Networks

    Introduction

    Determine Addressing Requirements

    Review Your Internetwork Design

    How Many Subnets Do You Need?

    How Many IP Addresses Are Needed in Each Subnet?

    Choose the Proper Mask

    Consult the Tables

    Obtain IP Addresses

    From Your Organization's Network Manager

    From Your ISP

    From Your Internet Registry

    Calculate Ranges of IP Addresses for Each Subnet

    Doing It the Hard Way

    Worksheets

    Subnet Calculators

    Allocate Addresses to Devices

    Assigning Subnets

    Assigning Device Addresses

    Document Your Work

    Keeping Track of What You've Done

    Paper

    Spreadsheets

    Databases

    In Any Case

    Summary

    FAQs

    Exercises

    Subnetting Tables

    Class A Subnetting Table

    Class B Subnetting Table

    Class C Subnetting Table

    Subnet Assignment Worksheet

    Chapter 3 Private Addressing and Subnetting Large Networks

    Introduction

    Strategies to Conserve Addresses

    CIDR

    VLSM

    Private Addresses

    Addressing Economics

    An Appeal

    Public vs Private Address Spaces

    Can I Pick My Own?

    RFC 1918~Private Network Addresses

    The Three-Address Blocks

    Considerations

    Which to Use When

    Strategy for Subnetting a Class A Private Network

    The Network

    The Strategy

    Address Assignment

    Results

    Summary

    FAQs

    Exercises

    Chapter 4 Network Address Translation

    Introduction

    Hiding Behind the Router/Firewall

    What Is NAT?

    How Does NAT Work?

    Network Address Translation (Static)

    How Does Static NAT Work?

    Double NAT

    Problems with Static NAT

    Configuration Examples

    Network Address Translation (Dynamic)

    How Does Dynamic NAT Work?

    Problems with Dynamic NAT

    Configuration Examples

    Port Address Translation (PAT)

    How Does PAT Work?

    Problems with PAT

    Configuration Examples

    What Are the Advantages?

    What Are the Performance Issues?

    Proxies and Firewall Capabilities

    Packet Filters

    Proxies

    Stateful Packet Filters

    Stateful Packet Filter with Rewrite

    Why a Proxy Server Is Really Not a NAT

    Shortcomings of SPF

    Summary

    FAQs

    References & Resources

    RFCs

    IP Masquerade/Linux

    Cisco

    Windows

    NAT Whitepapers

    Firewalls

    Chapter 5 Variable-Length Subnet Masking

    Introduction

    Why Are Variable-Length Masks Necessary?.

    Right-sizing Your Subnets

    More Addresses or More Useful Addresses?

    The Importance of Proper Planning

    Creating and Managing Variable-Length Subnets

    Analyze Subnet Needs

    Enumerate Each Subnet and Number of Required Nodes

    Determine Which Mask to Use in Each Subnet

    Allocate Addresses Based on Need For Each Subnet

    Routing Protocols and VI~M

    Class C VI~M Problem

    Completing the Class C Problem

    Template-based Address Assignment

    Summary

    FAQs

    Chapter 6 Routing Issues

    Introduction

    Classless Interdomain Routing

    From Millions to Thousands of Networks

    ISP Address Assignment

    Using CIDR Addresses Inside Your Network

    Contiguous Subnets

    IGRP

    EIGRP

    EIGRP Concepts

    RIP-1 Requirements

    Comparison with IGRP

    Routing Update Impact

    RIP-2 Requirements

    OSPF

    Configuring OSPF

    Routing Update Impact

    OSPF Implementation Recommendations

    BGP Requirements

    IBGP and EBGP Requirements

    Loopback Interfaces

    Summary

    FAQs

    Chapter 7 Automatic Assignment of IP Addresses with BOOTP and DHCP Objectives

    Introduction

    The Role of Dynamic Address Assignment

    A Brief History

    Address Management with These Tools

    Field Descriptions and Comments

    BOOTP Process Details

    The BOOTP Server Database

    How Does DHCP Work?

    DHCP-Specific Options

    Interoperation between DHCP and BOOTP

    DHCP Address Scopes

    Comparing BOOTP and DHCP

    How BOOTP Works

    DHCP / BOOTP Options

    BOOTP, DHCP, and Routed Networks

    The BOOTP Relay Agent

    The Role of the GIADDR

    Other Fields Involved

    BOOTP Implementation Checklist

    DHCP Implementation Checklist

    Summary

    FAQs

    Chapter 8 Multicast Addressing

    What Is Multicast?

    Mapping IP Multicast to the Link Layer

    Joining the Group

    IGMP

    Multicast Routing Protocols

    Mbone

    Multicast Addresses

    Transient and Permanent Addresses

    Generic Assignments

    IANA Assignments

    Scope of Multicast Addresses Using TTL

    Administrative Scopes

    IP Stacks and Multicast

    Why Multicast?

    Efficiency of Bandwidth Usage and Scaling

    Discovering

    Efficient Channel

    Industry

    Summary

    FAQ

    References

    Chapter 9 IPv6 Addressing

    Introduction

    IPv6 Addressing Basics

    IPv6 Addressing Scheme Characteristics

    Version

    Traffic Class

    Flow Label

    Payload Length

    Next Header

    More Bits!

    A More Flexible Hierarchical Organization of Addresses

    Minimizing the Size of Routing Tables

    Global Addresses for the Internet and Local Addresses for Intranet

    IPv6 Benefits

    Increased IP Address Size

    Increased Addressing Hierarchy Support

    Simplified Host Addressing

    Simpler Autoconfiguration of Addresses

    Improved Scalability of Multicast Routing

    The Anycast Address

    The Need for Further Development

    The Multihoming Problem

    The 6Bone

    Summary

    FAQ

    Chapter 10 The IPv6 Header

    Introduction

    Expanded Addressing

    Simplified Header

    Improved Support for Extension and Option

    Flow and Flow Labeling

    Authentication and Privacy

    IPv6 Header

    IPv4 Header

    Extension Headers

    Hop-by-Hop Option Header

    Routing Header

    Fragment Header

    Authentication Header

    Encapsulating Security Payload

    Destination Options Header

    Upper-Layer Protocol Issues

    Summary

    FAQs

    References

    Appendix A Address Assignment

    Introduction

    Registries

    Provider-Based Assignments

    Cost of an IP Address

    How to Find an IPv4 Address Delegation

    How to Find an IPv6 Address Delegation

    Internet Governance

    Summary

    Index


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