Introduction to the Physics of Cohesive Sediment Dynamics in the Marine Environment
- J.C. Winterwerp, Delft Hydraulics & Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
- W.G.M. van Kesteren, Delft Hydraulics, The Netherlands
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This book is an introduction to the physical processes of cohesive sediment in the marine environment. It focuses on highly dynamic systems, such as estuaries and coastal seas. Processes on the continental shelf are also discussed and attention is given to the effects of chemistry, biology and gas.The process descriptions are based on hydrodynamic and soil mechanic principles, which integrate at the soil-water interface. This approach is substantiated through a classification scheme of sediment occurrences in which distinction is made between cohesive and granular material. Emphasis is also placed on the important interactions between turbulent flow and cohesive sediment suspensions, and on the impact of flow-induced forces on the stability of the seabed.
An overview of literature on cohesive sediment dynamics is presented and a number of new developments are highlighted, in particular in relation to floc formation, settling and sedimentation, consolidation, bed failure and liquefaction and erosion of the bed. Moreover, it presents a summary on methods and techniques to measure the various sediment properties necessary to quantify the various parameters in the physical-mathematical model descriptions. A number of examples and case studies have been included.
Researchers, professors, and academic libraries within the fields of geology, marine science and engineering.
- Published: June 2004
- Imprint: ELSEVIER
- ISBN: 978-0-444-51553-7
DIS-56 has given me a lot of new ideas, and it will undoubtedly stimulate others as well. There can be only one recommendation for the interested reader: buy the book before it runs out of print again.
J.H. Baas, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 2005
Table of Contents1. Introduction.2. Boundary layer flow.2.1 Hydrodynamics and mass balance.2.2 The boundary layer.2.3 The effect of surface waves.3. The nature of cohesive sediment.3.1 The composition of cohesive sediment.3.2 Skeleton fabric composition of cohesive sediment.3.3 Geotechnical classification of cohesive sediment.3.4 Cohesive sediment in the marine environment.4. Flocculation processes.4.1 Introduction.4.2 Fractal structure of mud flocs.4.3 Flocculation model.4.4 Flocculation time.5. Settling and sedimentation.5.1 Introduction.5.2 Settling velocity and floc size.5.3 Deposition and sedimentation.6. Sediment-fluid interaction.6.1 Introduction.6.2 Sediment-fluid interaction - literature overview.6.3 Sediment-induced buoyancy effects.6.4 Sediment-fluid interaction in the benthic boundary layer.7. Self-weight consolidation.7.1 Introduction - classical theory.7.2 The Gibson consolidation equation.7.3 Special cases of the Gibson equation.7.4 Material functions for the Gibson equation.7.5 Application of Gibson's equation.7.6 Fractal description of bed structure.7.7 Consolidation as an advection-diffusion process using fractal theory.7.8 Material functions for fractal approach.7.9 Application of fractal approach.7.10 Approximated solution of consolidation equation.8. Mechanical behaviour.8.1 The seafloor as a multi-phase system.8.2 Stress-strain relations.8.3 Failure mechanisms.8.4 Cyclical behaviour.8.5 Strain-rate dependent behaviour.9. Erosion and entrainment.9.1 Phenomenological description of erosion.9.2 Literature on erosion.9.3 Classification scheme for erosion.9.4 Entrainment of fluid mud layers.9.5 Erosion as a drained/undrained process.10. Biological effects.10.1 The role of vegetation.10.2 Bio-deposition.10.3 Bio-stabilisation.10.4 Bio-destabilisation.11. Gas in cohesive sediment.11.1 Introduction.11.2 Gas-related processes in sediment.11.3 Biogenic gas production.11.4 Thermodynamic equilibrium of gas in water.11.5 Bubble mechanics.11.6 Channel formation.References.Appendix A: Nomenclature.Appendix B: Definitions and useful relations.Appendix C: Measuring techniques.C.1 Composition and properties of the sediment-water mixture.C.2 Particle size distribution.C.3 Sediment concentration and density.C.4 Rheological parameters.C.5 Soil mechanical parameters.C.6 Settling velocity.C.7 Erodibility.Appendix D: Tensor analysis.D.1 The stress tensor.D.2 The strain tensor.D.3 The strain-rate tensor.D.4 Momentum and energy equations.Appendix E: The 1DV Point Model.E.1 The 1DV-equations.E.2 Numerical implementation of the 1DV-equations.E.3 Requirements for numerical accuracySubject index.