Introduction to Dislocations book cover

Introduction to Dislocations

In materials science, dislocations are irregularities within the crystal structure or atomic scale of engineering materials, such as metals, semi-conductors, polymers, and composites. Discussing this specific aspect of materials science and engineering, Introduction to Dislocations is a key resource for students. The book provides students and practitioners with the fundamental principles required to understand dislocations. Comprised of 10 chapters, the text includes advanced computer modeling and very high-resolution electron microscopy to help readers better understand the structure of atoms close to the core of dislocations. It shows that atomic arrangement has a significant effect on the formation of dislocations and thereby on the properties of solids. The first two chapters of the book present an overview of dislocations. The crystal structures and the various defects and dislocations are discussed, and methods of observation and diagnosis of dislocations are covered. Chapters 3 to 5 discuss the behavior of dislocations and explain how changes in the structure and arrangement of atoms can affect the behavior of dislocations. The three chapters also discuss the mechanical properties of dislocations. The remaining chapters offer a detailed discussion of the mechanisms of dislocations and the mechanical strength of crystalline solids. The book is written for undergraduate- and graduate-level students in both materials science and mechanical engineering. Non-experts and novices working on mechanical properties, mechanisms of deformation and fracture, and properties of materials, as well as industrial and academic researchers, will find this book invaluable.

Audience

Advanced undergraduate and graduate students taking dislocations, mechanical properties, mechanisms of deformation and fracture, and properties of materials courses as part of broader mechanical engineering and materials science curricula; Industry and academic researchers in the subjects listed above.

Paperback, 272 Pages

Published: February 2011

Imprint: Butterworth Heinemann

ISBN: 978-0-08-096672-4

Reviews

  • "The authors have taken an already exemplary textbook and ensured that it is both up-to-date and manageable. The carefully chosen bibliography sections at the end of every chapter are invaluable. There is no alternative book on dislocation theory that covers the ground of this volume and there does not need to be."--Materials World Magazine, October 2012
    "This book fits a very much needed slot as it is written at a level that is much easier to understand than the classic old texts on dislocations...and is, for that reason, ideal for both undergraduates and beginning or interdisciplinary graduate students."--Kevin J. Hemker, Professor and Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University
    "One of the most striking advantages of the book is the concise and lucid text...There are many books dealing with dislocations but only one up-to-date introduction. It is warmly recommended to teachers and students in solid state sciences"
    --Crystallization Technology
    "As we grow older, we tend to grow fatter but wiser. This is certainly the case of the 4th edition of 'Introduction to Dislocations'...the book is excellent value and there is no excuse why every student of metallurgy should not be familiar with its contents, and every researcher have it readily to hand."--Steel Times


Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter 1 Defects in Crystals

        1.1 Crystalline Materials

        1.2 Simple Crystal Structures

        1.3 Defects in Crystalline Materials

             Point Defects

             Stacking Faults

             Grain Boundaries

             Twin Boundaries

             Volume Defects

        1.4 Dislocations

             Geometry of Dislocations

             Burgers Vector and Burgers Circuit

        Further Reading

    Chapter 2 Observation of Dislocations

        2.1 Introduction

        2.2 Electron Microscopy

             General Principles

             Dislocations

             Planar Defects

             Lattice Imaging

             Image Simulation

             Other Factors

        2.3 Other Experimental Methods

             Surface Methods

             Decoration Methods

             X-ray Diffraction Topography

             Field Ion Microscopy and Atom Probe Tomography

        2.4 Computer Simulation

             Atomic-Level Simulation

             Continuum-Level Simulation

        Further Reading

    Chapter 3 Movement of Dislocations

        3.1 Concept of Slip

        3.2 Dislocations and Slip

        3.3 The Slip Plane

        3.4 Cross Slip

        3.5 Velocity of Dislocations

        3.6 Climb

        3.7 Experimental Observation of Climb

             Prismatic Dislocation Loops

             Helical Dislocations

        3.8 Conservative Climb

        3.9 Plastic Strain due to Dislocation Movement

        Further Reading

    Chapter 4 Elastic Properties of Dislocations

        4.1 Introduction

        4.2 Elements of Elasticity Theory

        4.3 Stress Field of a Straight Dislocation

             Screw Dislocation

             Edge Dislocation

        4.4 Strain Energy of a Dislocation

        4.5 Forces on Dislocations

        4.6 Forces between Dislocations

        4.7 Climb Forces

        4.8 Image Forces

        Further Reading

    Chapter 5 Dislocations in Face-centered Cubic Metals

        5.1 Perfect Dislocations

        5.2 Partial Dislocations - The Shockley Partial

        5.3 Slip

        5.4 Thompson’s Tetrahedron

        5.5 Frank Partial Dislocation

        5.6 Dislocation Locks and Stair-Rod Partials

        5.7 Stacking Fault Tetrahedra

        Further Reading

    Chapter 6 Dislocations in Other Crystal Structures

        6.1 Introduction

        6.2 Dislocations in Hexagonal Close-packed Metals

             Burgers Vectors and Stacking Faults

             Basal and Non-basal Slip

             Vacancy and Interstitial Loops

        6.3 Dislocations in Body-centered Cubic Metals

        6.4 Dislocations in Ionic Crystals

        6.5 Dislocations in Superlattices

        6.6 Dislocations in Covalent Crystals

        6.7 Dislocations in Layer Structures

        6.8 Dislocations in Polymer Crystals

        Further Reading

    Chapter 7 Jogs and the Intersection of Dislocations

        7.1 Introduction

        7.2 Intersection of Dislocations

        7.3 Movement of Dislocations Containing Elementary Jogs

        7.4 Superjogs

        7.5 Jogs and Prismatic Loops

        7.6 Intersections of Extended Dislocations and Extended Jogs

        7.7 Attractive and Repulsive Junctions

        7.8 Extended Stacking-fault Nodes

        Further Reading

    Chapter 8 Origin and Multiplication of Dislocations

        8.1 Introduction

        8.2 Dislocations in Freshly Grown Crystals

        8.3 Homogeneous Nucleation of Dislocations

        8.4 Nucleation of Dislocations at Stress Concentrators

        8.5 Multiplication of Dislocations by Frank-Read Sources

        8.6 Multiplication by Multiple Cross Glide

        8.7 Multiplication by Climb

        8.8 Grain Boundary Sources

        Further Reading

    Chapter 9 Dislocation Arrays and Crystal Boundaries

        9.1 Plastic Deformation, Recovery and Recrystallization

        9.2 Simple Dislocation Boundaries

        9.3 General Low-angle Boundaries

        9.4 Stress Field of Dislocation Arrays

        9.5 Strain Energy of Dislocation Arrays

        9.6 Dislocations and Steps in Interfaces

             Admissible Defects

             Identification of Interfacial Dislocations

             Dislocations in Epitaxial Interfaces

        9.7 Movement of Boundaries

             Arrays of Crystal Dislocations

             Glide of Interfacial Defects

             Diffusion-assisted Motion of Interfacial Defects

             Martensitic Transformations

        9.8 Dislocation Pile-ups

        Further Reading

    Chapter 10 Strength of Crystalline Solids

        10.1 Introduction

        10.2 Temperature- and Strain-Rate-Dependence of the Flow Stress

        10.3 The Peierls Stress and Lattice Resistance

             Dislocation Core Structure

             The Peierls Barrier

             Kink Mechanism

        10.4 Interaction Between Point Defects and Dislocations

        10.5 Solute Atmospheres and Yield Phenomena

             Dislocation Locking

             Yield Drop

             Irradiation Hardening and Dislocation Channeling

        10.6 The Flow Stress for Random Arrays of Obstacles

             Diffuse Forces

             Localized Forces

        10.7 The Strength of Alloys

             Solutions, Precipitates and Aging

             Solution Strengthening

             Precipitate Strengthening

        10.8 Work Hardening

        10.9 Deformation of Polycrystals

        10.10 Dislocations and Fracture

        Further Reading

    The SI System of Units

    Index






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