Introduction to Dislocations


  • Derek Hull, Emeritus Goldsmith's Professor, University of Cambridge, Emeritus Professor, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, UK
  • D. J. Bacon, Emeritus Professor, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, UK

In materials science, dislocations are irregularities within the crystal structure or atomic scale of engineering materials, such as metals, semi-conductors, polymers, and composites. Discussing this specific aspect of materials science and engineering, Introduction to Dislocations is a key resource for students. The book provides students and practitioners with the fundamental principles required to understand dislocations. Comprised of 10 chapters, the text includes advanced computer modeling and very high-resolution electron microscopy to help readers better understand the structure of atoms close to the core of dislocations. It shows that atomic arrangement has a significant effect on the formation of dislocations and thereby on the properties of solids. The first two chapters of the book present an overview of dislocations. The crystal structures and the various defects and dislocations are discussed, and methods of observation and diagnosis of dislocations are covered. Chapters 3 to 5 discuss the behavior of dislocations and explain how changes in the structure and arrangement of atoms can affect the behavior of dislocations. The three chapters also discuss the mechanical properties of dislocations. The remaining chapters offer a detailed discussion of the mechanisms of dislocations and the mechanical strength of crystalline solids. The book is written for undergraduate- and graduate-level students in both materials science and mechanical engineering. Non-experts and novices working on mechanical properties, mechanisms of deformation and fracture, and properties of materials, as well as industrial and academic researchers, will find this book invaluable.
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Advanced undergraduate and graduate students taking dislocations, mechanical properties, mechanisms of deformation and fracture, and properties of materials courses as part of broader mechanical engineering and materials science curricula; Industry and academic researchers in the subjects listed above.


Book information

  • Published: February 2011
  • ISBN: 978-0-08-096672-4


"The authors have taken an already exemplary textbook and ensured that it is both up-to-date and manageable. The carefully chosen bibliography sections at the end of every chapter are invaluable. There is no alternative book on dislocation theory that covers the ground of this volume and there does not need to be."--Materials World Magazine, October 2012
"This book fits a very much needed slot as it is written at a level that is much easier to understand than the classic old texts on dislocations...and is, for that reason, ideal for both undergraduates and beginning or interdisciplinary graduate students."--Kevin J. Hemker, Professor and Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University
"One of the most striking advantages of the book is the concise and lucid text...There are many books dealing with dislocations but only one up-to-date introduction. It is warmly recommended to teachers and students in solid state sciences"
--Crystallization Technology
"As we grow older, we tend to grow fatter but wiser. This is certainly the case of the 4th edition of 'Introduction to Dislocations'...the book is excellent value and there is no excuse why every student of metallurgy should not be familiar with its contents, and every researcher have it readily to hand."--Steel Times

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Defects in Crystals

    1.1 Crystalline Materials

    1.2 Simple Crystal Structures

    1.3 Defects in Crystalline Materials

         Point Defects

         Stacking Faults

         Grain Boundaries

         Twin Boundaries

         Volume Defects

    1.4 Dislocations

         Geometry of Dislocations

         Burgers Vector and Burgers Circuit

    Further Reading

Chapter 2 Observation of Dislocations

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Electron Microscopy

         General Principles


         Planar Defects

         Lattice Imaging

         Image Simulation

         Other Factors

    2.3 Other Experimental Methods

         Surface Methods

         Decoration Methods

         X-ray Diffraction Topography

         Field Ion Microscopy and Atom Probe Tomography

    2.4 Computer Simulation

         Atomic-Level Simulation

         Continuum-Level Simulation

    Further Reading

Chapter 3 Movement of Dislocations

    3.1 Concept of Slip

    3.2 Dislocations and Slip

    3.3 The Slip Plane

    3.4 Cross Slip

    3.5 Velocity of Dislocations

    3.6 Climb

    3.7 Experimental Observation of Climb

         Prismatic Dislocation Loops

         Helical Dislocations

    3.8 Conservative Climb

    3.9 Plastic Strain due to Dislocation Movement

    Further Reading

Chapter 4 Elastic Properties of Dislocations

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Elements of Elasticity Theory

    4.3 Stress Field of a Straight Dislocation

         Screw Dislocation

         Edge Dislocation

    4.4 Strain Energy of a Dislocation

    4.5 Forces on Dislocations

    4.6 Forces between Dislocations

    4.7 Climb Forces

    4.8 Image Forces

    Further Reading

Chapter 5 Dislocations in Face-centered Cubic Metals

    5.1 Perfect Dislocations

    5.2 Partial Dislocations - The Shockley Partial

    5.3 Slip

    5.4 Thompson’s Tetrahedron

    5.5 Frank Partial Dislocation

    5.6 Dislocation Locks and Stair-Rod Partials

    5.7 Stacking Fault Tetrahedra

    Further Reading

Chapter 6 Dislocations in Other Crystal Structures

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Dislocations in Hexagonal Close-packed Metals

         Burgers Vectors and Stacking Faults

         Basal and Non-basal Slip

         Vacancy and Interstitial Loops

    6.3 Dislocations in Body-centered Cubic Metals

    6.4 Dislocations in Ionic Crystals

    6.5 Dislocations in Superlattices

    6.6 Dislocations in Covalent Crystals

    6.7 Dislocations in Layer Structures

    6.8 Dislocations in Polymer Crystals

    Further Reading

Chapter 7 Jogs and the Intersection of Dislocations

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Intersection of Dislocations

    7.3 Movement of Dislocations Containing Elementary Jogs

    7.4 Superjogs

    7.5 Jogs and Prismatic Loops

    7.6 Intersections of Extended Dislocations and Extended Jogs

    7.7 Attractive and Repulsive Junctions

    7.8 Extended Stacking-fault Nodes

    Further Reading

Chapter 8 Origin and Multiplication of Dislocations

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Dislocations in Freshly Grown Crystals

    8.3 Homogeneous Nucleation of Dislocations

    8.4 Nucleation of Dislocations at Stress Concentrators

    8.5 Multiplication of Dislocations by Frank-Read Sources

    8.6 Multiplication by Multiple Cross Glide

    8.7 Multiplication by Climb

    8.8 Grain Boundary Sources

    Further Reading

Chapter 9 Dislocation Arrays and Crystal Boundaries

    9.1 Plastic Deformation, Recovery and Recrystallization

    9.2 Simple Dislocation Boundaries

    9.3 General Low-angle Boundaries

    9.4 Stress Field of Dislocation Arrays

    9.5 Strain Energy of Dislocation Arrays

    9.6 Dislocations and Steps in Interfaces

         Admissible Defects

         Identification of Interfacial Dislocations

         Dislocations in Epitaxial Interfaces

    9.7 Movement of Boundaries

         Arrays of Crystal Dislocations

         Glide of Interfacial Defects

         Diffusion-assisted Motion of Interfacial Defects

         Martensitic Transformations

    9.8 Dislocation Pile-ups

    Further Reading

Chapter 10 Strength of Crystalline Solids

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Temperature- and Strain-Rate-Dependence of the Flow Stress

    10.3 The Peierls Stress and Lattice Resistance

         Dislocation Core Structure

         The Peierls Barrier

         Kink Mechanism

    10.4 Interaction Between Point Defects and Dislocations

    10.5 Solute Atmospheres and Yield Phenomena

         Dislocation Locking

         Yield Drop

         Irradiation Hardening and Dislocation Channeling

    10.6 The Flow Stress for Random Arrays of Obstacles

         Diffuse Forces

         Localized Forces

    10.7 The Strength of Alloys

         Solutions, Precipitates and Aging

         Solution Strengthening

         Precipitate Strengthening

    10.8 Work Hardening

    10.9 Deformation of Polycrystals

    10.10 Dislocations and Fracture

    Further Reading

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